Part five issue 11
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Part Five, Issue 11. Global Water Supplies: Are They Sustainable. Objectives. After reading the assigned chapter and reviewing the materials presented the students will be able to understand: How much water do people need? How much water is used in agriculture?

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Part Five, Issue 11

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Part five issue 11

Part Five, Issue 11

Global Water Supplies: Are They Sustainable


Objectives

Objectives

After reading the assigned chapter and reviewing the materials presented the students will be able to understand:

  • How much water do people need?

  • How much water is used in agriculture?

  • What effect will climate change have on water supplies?


Introduction

Introduction

  • In 1977, California was in the midst of a powerful drought. Residents were forbidden to water their lawns or wash their cars.

  • Health officials have shown that cholera, an often deadly bacterial infection can be controlled by a simple and cheap cloth filtration system for drinking water.

  • One in six of the planet’s 6.4 billion people presently lack access to safe water and at least 2.4 billion do not have access to adequate sanitation.

  • Water demand is projected to grow by 40% over the next 20 years. If this issue is to be addressed, hundreds of billions of dollars must be invested globally in water infrastructure.


The hydrologic cycle

The Hydrologic Cycle

  • The movement of water at the earth’s surface is called the water or hydrologic cycle.

  • The components of the cycle are evaporation, precipitation, runoff, and infiltration (fig 11-2, page 117).

  • Water that infiltrates into the soil is called groundwater.

  • Glaciers and permanent snow have 68.70% of the earth’s freshwater and fresh groundwater has 30.10%.

  • The earth’s oceans have 97.50% of all water.


How available is water globally

How Available is Water Globally

  • Eighty percent of all illness in developing countries are water related, according to the UN.

  • By UN estimates two-thirds of humanity, or as many as 5 billion people will face shortages of clean freshwater by the year 2025.

  • Some toxic organisms are already resistant to chlorination, the most widespread technique to purify drinking water.


Who collects and distributes the planet s water

Who collects and distributes the Planet’s Water?

  • Sizeable investments are required to extract, purify, and distribute water.

  • The UN estimates that at least US $180 billion will be required globally to expand supplies over the next two decades.

  • There is a lot of waste due to leaking pipes.

  • Lack of water will generate refugees, the cost will be borne by other segments of society or other nations.

  • Governments typically build and operate water distribution systems.


Impacts of contaminated water

Impacts of Contaminated Water

  • According to the UN, as many as 3 million children die each year from polluted water or water scarcity.

  • It is one of the major factors driving mass migration, creating increasing number of human refugees.

  • Humans need 500,000 liters a year to meet minimum human hygiene demands.


Water use in the united states

Water Use in the United States

  • The United States uses about 400 billion gallons each day.

  • This figure includes both consumptive use (the water is not put back where it came from) and non consumptive use (the water is put back after use).

  • About three-fourths of all water used in California, is by agriculture.

  • Subsidized prices to agribusiness meant massive waste. Most irrigation ditches were made of unlined dirt.

  • Up to a quarter of the water trickled into the soil before reaching its destination.

  • Up to 25 % evaporated from the ditches in 100 degree heat.


Climate changes and water demand in california

Climate Changes and Water Demand in California

  • Studies on ancient trees have yielded valuable insight into climatic variability in California.

  • Such studies confirm that California’s climate over the past millennium have been extremely variable, with severe drought conditions persisting for decades to centuries.

  • Incorporating this data into computer forecasts, shows that California’s climate is going to become more extreme than in the recent past.

  • This will force agonizing choices for providing water consumed by industrial agriculture, commerce, and municipalities.


Water and development the people s republic of china

Water and Development: The People’s Republic of China

  • Over half the population must use drinking water that fails to meet minimum drinking water quality standards in China.

  • Three reasons account for China’s degraded water:

  • 1. Rapid and unregulated expansion of industry.

  • 2. Failure to invest in infrastructure to meet growing need.

  • 3. Reliance on sewage effluent to irrigate crops.


Water and geopolitics israeli palestinian water conflict

Water and Geopolitics: Israeli/Palestinian Water Conflict

  • Water is one of the major areas of disagreement between the Israelis and Palestinians.

  • Future water needs cannot be met by increasing supply from existing sources.

  • Thus conservation, new supplies, or a combination of both will be needed, along with measures to address population growth.


Summary

Summary

  • One in six of the planet’s 6.4 billion people presently lack access to safe water and at least 2.4 billion do not have access to adequate sanitation.

  • Water demand is projected to grow by 40% over the next 20 years. If this issue is to be addressed, hundreds of billions of dollars must be invested globally in water infrastructure.

  • The movement of water at the earth’s surface is called the water or hydrologic cycle. The components of the cycle are evaporation, precipitation, runoff, and infiltration . Water that infiltrates into the soil is called groundwater.

  • Eighty percent of all illness in developing countries are water related, according to the UN.

  • By UN estimates two-thirds of humanity, or as many as 5 billion people will face shortages of clean freshwater by the year 2025.

  • The UN estimates that at least US $180 billion will be required globally to expand supplies over the next two decades.

  • Humans need 500,000 liters a year to meet minimum human hygiene demands.

  • Studies on ancient trees have yielded valuable insight into climatic variability in California.


Home work

Home Work

  •  1. What are the components of the water or hydrological cycle?

  • 2. What percentage of all illness in developing countries are water related, according to the UN?

  • 3. What is the minimum human hygiene demand for water?


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