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Child poverty/outcome determinants and feedback loops in the Global Study. Gaspar Fajth, UNICEF DPP. Where do risks come from for children?. “Backgrounds” (“Context”) Time (change). Where do risks come from for children?. “Backgrounds” (“Context”) Time (change).

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Child poverty/outcome determinants and feedback loops in the Global Study

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Child poverty outcome determinants and feedback loops in the global study l.jpg

Child poverty/outcome determinants and feedback loops in the Global Study

Gaspar Fajth, UNICEF DPP


Where do risks come from for children l.jpg

Where do risks come from for children?

  • “Backgrounds” (“Context”)

  • Time (change)


Where do risks come from for children3 l.jpg

Where do risks come from for children?

  • “Backgrounds” (“Context”)

  • Time (change)

The Global Study on Child Poverty is an attempt to create a shared FRAME (core tabulations) for systematically mapping these risk factors for children through

looking at OUTCOMES, DETERMINANTS – as well as POLICY

to stimulate debate, creative thinking, solutions, info exchanges


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The three-part approach to multidimensional poverty and disparity

A. Geographic dimension

B. Household dimension

C. Individual dimension


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The three-part approach to multidimensional poverty and disparity

A. Geographic dimension

B. Household dimension

C. Individual dimension

Time

Children not living in hholds


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A. Geographic dimension (determinant)

  • (Country)

  • Region

  • Residence


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B. Household dimension (determinants)

  • Household size (members)

  • Education of the head of the household (none, primary, second+)

  • Gender of the head of the household

  • Wealth index quintiles

  • Ethnicity/language/religion

  • Work

  • Illness and disability in the household

  • Family vulnerability

  • Access to social security and security of tenure


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Household dimensions (determinants) in details

Ethnicity/language/religion

Group 1

Group 2

Group 3

Work (among hholds with children)

Both parents working

None of the parents are working

No adult in primary working age (18-54)

At least one child under 15 working

Illness and disability in the household

Adult(s) with chronic illness

Child/children with disability

Family vulnerability (not mutually exclusive categories)

Single parent

Orphan child in household

High dependency ratio (4+children per adult)

Elder (70+) person in household

Household size

Less than 3

3-4 members

5-6 members

7+

Women’s education

None

Primary

Secondary+

Gender of the head of the household

Male

Female

Wealth index quintiles

Q1 (poorest)

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q5


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B. Household dimension – outcome (feedback into/determinant of child outcomes)

  • Household income poverty

  • Deprivation of materials goods and services (household /community indicators of the seven “Bristol”)

EXAMPLE: Table 2.1.1 Trends in income/consumption poverty since 1990


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C. Individual dimension (determinants)

  • Gender

  • Age


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C. Individual dimension (outcome)

  • Deprivation of materials goods and services (3 individual indicators out of the seven “Bristol”)

    • Nutrition deprived

    • Health deprived

    • Education deprived

  • Five main outcome areas (1-5)


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Five outcome areas and 20 indicators proposed

1) Nutrition:

  • Child nutrition (stunting, wasting, underweight) and its correlates

    2) Health:

  • Young child health (diorrhoea, ORT, fever, pneumonia treatment) and correlates

  • Adolescent health (HIV knowledge, counseling coverage on MCT) and correlates

    3) Child protection:

  • Birth registration and its correlates

  • Orphanhood, vulnerability and its correlates

  • Child labour (total, paid) and its correlates

  • Early marriage (before 15 and 18) and its correlates

    4) Education:

  • Net primary school attendance and correlates

    5) Social Protection/income:

  • Social protection (women covered by health insurance, children receiving free medical supplies, any other data on social protection benefit coverage) and correlates


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What is social policy?

“State intervention that directly affects social welfare, social institutions and social relations”

Two main types:

  • residual

    • poverty relief, safety net

  • developmental, transformative

    • promote intrinsic values such as social protection, gender equality, social cohesion and citizenship

      Two main ways:

  • implicit, i.e. embedded in economic policy

    • growth, inflation/exchange rate, employment, stability, anti-cyclical policy, rural development, land reform

    • tax and labour market policy

  • explicit, i.e. basic social services and social protection

    • education, health, water and sanitation

    • social protection

      • direct government provision of social welfare

      • regulation, incentives for private sector providers


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