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Evgw, eivmi to; A[lfa. Beginning Greek for Bible Study. Class #3 Review of English Grammar. kai; to; w =. Exegetical Example. 2 Cor. 5:21 – For He made Him who knew no sin to be sin on our behalf, so that we might become the righteousness of God in Him.

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Beginning greek for bible study

Evgw, eivmi to; A[lfa

Beginning Greek for Bible Study

Class #3

Review of English Grammar

kai; to; w=


Exegetical example
Exegetical Example

  • 2 Cor. 5:21 – For He made Him who knew no sin to be sin on our behalf, so that we might become the righteousness of God in Him.

  • to.n mh. gno,nta a`marti,an u`pe.r h`mw/n a`marti,an evpoi,hsen( i[na h`mei/j genw,meqa dikaiosu,nh qeou/ evn auvtw/|Å


English cases
English Cases

  • The boy hit his ball

    • The boy – Subjective case

    • The ball – Objective case

    • His – Possessive case

  • Word order is usually key in identifying English cases




English number gender
English Number & Gender

  • Number refers to a word being either singular or plural. In English, sometimes this is accomplished by adding an “s” to the end of the word. Other times, the form changes (“man” becomes “men”).

  • Gender refers to a word as being either masculine, feminine, or neuter.

    • Most English nouns do not have gender.

    • However, most English pronouns do.

    • Sometimes, we assign “natural” gender to words.


English grammar terms
English Grammar Terms

  • “Bob threw his green Greek book at the weird teacher.”

  • Noun – a word that stands for someone or something (Bob, book, teacher)

  • Adjective – a word that modifies a noun or pronoun (green, Greek, weird)

  • Preposition – a word that shows the relationship between two other words (at)


English grammar terms1
English Grammar Terms

  • Declension – a “pattern” of how words change to reflect their function

    • Plural

      • Adding “s”

        • Boy – Boys

        • Girl – Girls

      • Changing a vowel

        • Man – Men

        • Woman – Women

      • Drop the “y,” add “ies”

        • Family – families

        • Story – stories

        • Baby - babies


Nouns overview
Nouns - Overview

  • Case

  • Number

  • Gender

  • Declension


Verbs overview
Verbs - Overview

  • A verb is a word that describes an action or state of being:

    • Hit

    • Drive

    • Study

    • Think

    • Be – am, is, was


Verbs overview1
Verbs - Overview

  • Person

  • Number

  • Tense

  • Voice

  • Aspect

  • Mood


Verbs person
Verbs - Person

  • There are three “persons” – first, second, and third

  • First person – the person speaking (“I,” “we”)

  • Second person – the person being spoken to (“you,” “ya’ll”)

  • Third person – everything else (“he,” “she,” “it,” “they,” “book,” “coffee,” etc.)


Verbs person1
Verbs - Person

  • She is a nice person.

  • I am a believer.

  • He is a baseball player.

  • This sweet tea is refreshing.

  • You are a student.

  • Ya’ll are from Texas.


Verbs number
Verbs - Number

  • In the English third person, the verb is inflected by adding the letter “s” to the end of the verb.

    • I hit the ball.

    • You hit the ball.

    • He hits the ball.


Verbs agreement
Verbs - Agreement

  • A verb must “agree” with its subject in person and number.

    • The class learn Greek.

    • The class learns Greek.

    • I teaches the class.

    • I teach the class.

    • There is no tests in Greek class.

    • There are no tests in Greek class.


Verbs tense
Verbs - Tense

  • The tense of a verb refers to the TIME when the action of the verb takes place

  • There are three main tenses in English:

    • Present – I study

    • Past – I studied

    • Past Participle – I studied



Verbs tense2
Verbs - Tense

  • Other tenses in English are built off of these three tenses

  • Usually, a “helping” verb is used to build other tenses:

    • I WILL swim

    • I HAVE eaten


Verbs voice
Verbs - Voice

  • Voice refers to the relationship between the verb and its subject. A verb is either active or passive.

    • Active – the subject is doing the action – David hit the ball, She studied Greek

    • Passive – the subject is receiving the action – He was hit by the ball – She was justified by Christ


Verbs aspect
Verbs - Aspect

  • Aspect refers to the type of action that a verb describes

    • Continuous – ongoing process - “I am watching TV.”

    • Perfect – completed action with present consequences – “I have studied diligently.”

    • Undefined – says nothing other than that an action occurred – “I enjoy Greek.”

  • Don’t confuse tense with aspect.



Verbs mood
Verbs – Mood

  • Mood refers to a verb’s relationship to reality

    • Indicative – statement of fact or reality.

    • Subjunctive – statement about what might happen.

    • Imperative - something that is commanded.


Clauses phrases
Clauses & Phrases

  • A clause is a group of related words that includes a subject and verb.

    • After Greek class, I am going home.

    • When I get home, I am going to bed.

  • A phrase is a group of words that does not have a subject or indicative verb.

    • After Greek class, I am going home.

    • Because of the weather, I stayed home.


Dependent subordinate clauses
Dependent (Subordinate) Clauses

  • A dependent (or subordinate) clause is a clause that cannot grammatically stand on its own. It does not make sense by itself.

    • When I get home

    • Because of the weather

  • An independent clause can stand on its own.

    • I am going home

    • I am going to bed

    • I am studying Greek


Clauses
Clauses

  • Recognizing an independent clause from a dependent clause is ESSENTIAL for understanding the Bible.

  • The main point of a biblical text is usually in an independent clause, not a dependent clause.


Clauses col 1 28 29
Clauses – Col. 1:28-29

  • 28 - We proclaim Him, admonishing every man and teaching every man with all wisdom, so that we may present every man complete in Christ.

  • 29 - For this purpose also I labor, striving according to His power, which mightily works within me.


Clauses col 1 28 291
Clauses – Col. 1:28-29

  • We proclaim Him

    admonishing every man

    and teaching every man with all wisdom

    so that we may present every man complete in Christ.

  • For this purpose also I labor

    striving according to His power, which mightily works within me.


Clauses 1 peter 1 3 5
Clauses – 1 Peter 1:3-5

  • 3 - Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who according to His great mercy has caused us to be born again to a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead,

  • 4 - to obtain an inheritance which is imperishable and undefiled and will not fade away, reserved in heaven for you,

  • 5 - who are protected by the power of God through faith for a salvation ready to be revealed in the last time.


Conjunctions
Conjunctions

  • Conjunctions are words that connect words, phrases, clauses, and sentences.

    • Coordinating – connect independent clauses (and, but, for, or, so, yet)

      • The word was with God and the word was God.

      • Be angry but do not sin.

    • Subordinate – begin a dependent clause and often link it to an independent clause (because, since, if, when, where)

      • I am studying because I want to do well.

      • If we ask anything according to his will, He hears us.


Types of clauses
Types of Clauses

  • Relative – clauses that start with a relative pronoun (who, whose, whom, which, that)

    • “the rest of my fellow workers, whose names are in the book of life” (Phil. 4:3)

    • "There is another who testifies of Me, and I know that the testimony which He gives about Me is true.” (John 5:32)


Types of phrases
Types of Phrases

  • Prepositional Phrase – start with a preposition

    • “The Greek book is under the table.”

    • “I do not receive glory from men” (John 5:41)

  • Participial Phrase – begin with a participle (a verb ending in “ing”)

    • After doing my Greek homework, I went to bed.

    • “You do not have His word abiding in you” (John 5:38)


Function of phrases
Function of Phrases

  • Phrases can act as parts of speech

    • Noun – Whoever is with me is not against me.

    • Adjectival – He who is not for us is against us.

    • Adverbial – Drive with care.


Examples
Examples

  • The Light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it.

  • If we confess our sins, He is faithful and righteous to forgive us our sins and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness.


Homework
Homework

  • Read chapter 8

  • Practice identifying parts of speech in your Bible

  • Memorize the alphabet and dipthongs


Advanced class

Advanced Class

Class #3

Greek Nouns


Overview of greek nouns
Overview of Greek Nouns

  • Stem

  • Declension

  • Case

  • Number

  • Gender


Greek cases
Greek Cases

  • Greek has five cases:

    • Nominative case – identifies the subject

    • Genitive case – usually indicates possession

    • Dative case – usually identifies the indirect object

    • Accusative case – usually identifies the direct object

    • Vocative case – the case for direct address



The form of greek nouns
The Form of Greek Nouns

  • Case Endings – a suffix (ending) added to a word which is used to mark the case.

    • lo,goj

    • logou/

  • Stem – what remains of a Greek noun after you remove the case ending. This is what identifies a word.

    • logo

    • qeo


The form of greek nouns1
The Form of Greek Nouns

  • Gender – a noun is either masculine, feminine, or neuter. A noun only has one gender that never changes.

    • a`martolo,j = sinner (masculine)

    • a`marti,a = sin (feminine)

    • Hints:

      • oj – usually masculine

      • on – usually neuter

      • h or a – usually feminine

  • Number – a noun is either singular or plural. This is identified through case endings:

    • avpo,stoloj = “apostle”

    • avpo,stoloi = “apostles”


The form of greek nouns2
The Form of Greek Nouns

  • Declension – this is the “pattern” of inflection that Greek nouns follow. There are three declensions:

    • First Declension – noun stem ends in a or h, usually feminine nouns. – grafh,

    • Second Declension – noun stem ends in o, usually masculine or neuter nouns. – avpo,stoloj, e;rgon

    • Third Declension – noun stem ends in a consonant.


Lexical form
Lexical form

  • The form of nouns found in lexicons is the nominative singular

    • ko,smon – ko,smoj

    • avga,phn – avga,ph





Hints
Hints

  • The masculine and feminine case endings are often the same. In the nominative and accusative, the neuter is usually distinct from the masculine.

  • In the neuter, the nominative and accusative singular are always the same, and the nominative and accusative plural are always the same.


Parsing
Parsing

  • When parsing a noun, you need to give:

    • The case

    • The number

    • The gender

    • The lexical form

    • The inflected meaning

    • For example, lo,gouj is accusative plural masculine, from lo,goj, meaning “words.”


Noun rules
Noun Rules

  • Stems ending in alpha or eta are in the first declension, stems ending in omicron are in the second, and consonantal stems are in the third declension.

  • Every neuter word has the same form in the nominative and accusative.

  • Almost all neuter words end in alpha in the nominative and accusative plural.


The greek definite article
The Greek definite article

  • The definite article is the only article in Greek. There is no indefinite article in Greek (no “a” or “an”).

  • The article has case, number, and gender. The article always agrees with the noun it modifies in case, number, and gender.



The importance of the article
The importance of the article

  • Knowing the forms of the article is the key to understanding the forms of nouns in Greek.

    • Most nouns take the article, so if you can’t parse the noun, the article will help.

    • Most of the case endings on nouns are similar to the article.



Homework1
Homework

  • Read chapter 7

  • Re-read chapter 6 if needed

  • Learn the vocabulary words in chapters 4 & 6

  • Do the exercises in the workbook for chapter 6


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