Animals as Individuals
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Animals as Individuals. Animals as Individuals. Animals in Science. Animals in Science. Individual Differences: personality behavioral syndromes temperment individual differences method to study other phenomena Implications: service animals pet adoption conservation welfare

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Animals as Individuals

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Animals as individuals

Animals as Individuals


Animals as individuals

Animals as Individuals


Animals as individuals

Animals in Science


Animals as individuals

Animals in Science

  • Individual Differences:

    • personality

    • behavioral syndromes

    • temperment

    • individual differences

    • method to study other phenomena

  • Implications:

    • service animals

    • pet adoption

    • conservation

    • welfare

    • evolution

    • development

What are the important dimensions and why?


Animals as individuals

Bold/Shy ~ Riskiness

Regulatory Focus


Animals as individuals

Overview

  • Zoo Monkey Studies

    • Observational

    • Experimental

  • Lab Rat Studies

    • Individual characterization

    • Social Homecage

  • Future Lab Rat Studies

    • Development

    • Welfare

    • Evolution


Animals as individuals

Regulatory Focus in Animals

  • Promotion (PM) = Focus on Gains

    • concerned with gains (food treats)

    • eat in the open

    • present in gain-related locations

    • *approach only to exploit gains

  • Prevention (PV) = Focus on Non-losses

    • concerned with security

    • hide

    • absent from unavoidable loss-related locations

    • *approach to establish safety/status quo


Animals as individuals

Zoo Monkey Studies

Timeline

observational 6 months

experimental 1 month


Animals as individuals

Zoo Observational

  • eating in open

  • hiding

  • front of exhibit


Animals as individuals

Zoo Observational


Animals as individuals

Zoo Observational


Animals as individuals

Zoo Observational

  • Summary:

  • Minnie = promotion or bold

  • Munchkin = prevention or shy

  • *Test Bold/Shy vs. Regulatory Focus experimentally


Animals as individuals

Zoo Experimental

  • unfamiliar object pm fast

  • familiar object:

    • food  pm fast

    • * non-food  pv faster


Animals as individuals

Zoo Experimental


Animals as individuals

Zoo Monkey Studies

  • Summary:

  • Preliminary evidence of Regulatory Focus in nonhuman animals

  • Regulatory Focus makes distinct predictions compared to a bold/shy model

  • May have implications for animal welfare science and enrichment programs


Animals as individuals

Lab Rat Studies

Timeline: 1 year 3 months

solitary tests

1 month

homecage

1 month


Animals as individuals

Solitary Tests

*


Animals as individuals

Solitary Tests

r = 0.73


Animals as individuals

Solitary Tests

r = 0.66


Animals as individuals

Solitary Tests

P < 0.0005


Animals as individuals

Solitary Tests

P < 0.008


Animals as individuals

Solitary Tests

  • Summary:

  • Pm and Pv behavior is stable

  • Pm focus on gains (treats) over possible losses

  • Pv focus on establishing safety over gains

  • * Bold/shy unsatisfactory explanation


Animals as individuals

Homecage Tests

* preliminary!

* data analysis is ongoing

pm

pv

x

x

  • Measure:

  • latency to pm/pv test

  • time spent in pm/pv cages

  • dominance


Animals as individuals

Homecage Tests


Animals as individuals

Homecage Tests

without “f”: P = 0.15


Animals as individuals

Homecage Tests

dichotomize: P < 0.03

without “q”: P < 0.03


Animals as individuals

Homecage Tests

P < 0.02


Animals as individuals

Lab Rat Studies

  • Summary:

  • From Solitary Tests:

    • stable pm/pv dimensions (over short term)

    • pv is more exploratory (i.e. pv ≠ shy)

  • From Homecage Tests (in females):

    • pv is stable over long term (pm too?)

    • pv is concerned with safety and security


Animals as individuals

Future Rat Studies

  • Development of pm/pv

  • Welfare differences with pm/pv

  • Evolution????????


Animals as individuals

pv

pv

pm

pm

Development


Animals as individuals

enriched

pm/pv

tested

born

Welfare

solitary

(bad)

pv rat

& pv

enrich

pv rat

& pm

enrich

pm rat

& pv

enrich

pm rat

& pm

enrich


Animals as individuals

Evolution

  • Why are there individual differences in behavior across species?

  • Is this a unique phenomenon?

  • What is the disadvantage of being instable?

  • What is the right question/comparison?


Animals as individuals

Thank you!


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