Lab 9 endocrine system
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Lab 9: Endocrine System. Review. Where does pepsinogen come from? Why doesn’t the stomach digest itself? Why can Veggans not eat meat anymore?. Function. Maintain Homeostasis (Balance) Communicates and coordinates physiological responses Example of Imbalance?. DVD clip Battling A Giant.

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Lab 9: Endocrine System

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Lab 9: Endocrine System


Review

  • Where does pepsinogen come from?

  • Why doesn’t the stomach digest itself?

  • Why can Veggans not eat meat anymore?


Function

  • Maintain Homeostasis (Balance)

    • Communicates and coordinates physiological responses

  • Example of Imbalance?


DVD clipBattling A Giant


Hormones

  • Chemical messengers

    • Stimulate physiological responses in other cells

    • Target Cells

  • Tropic (Trophic) Hormones

    • Hormone whose target is another endocrine gland.

  • How do hormones travel?


Hormone Production and Distribution

  • Production

    • Endocrine Glands

    • Gland: an organ specialized to produce secretions

  • Distribution

    • Relies on blood circulatory system

  • How does this compare to nervous system?


Hypothalamus

Pituitary

Thyroid

Parathyroid

Pancreas

Adrenal

Gonads

Endocrine Glands


Hypothalamus

  • Location- Base of brain case

  • Functions- Regulation of Primitive or Basal activities such as sex drive and water balance

  • 9 hormones-

    • 7 act on anterior lobe of pituitary gland (Tropic)

    • 2 stored in posterior lobe


Hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system

  • What type of vessels comprise a portal system?

  • What is unique about a portal system?


Hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system and tract

  • Location-

    • Pituitary Stalk (Infundibulum)

  • Link the hypothalmus to the pituitary gland

  • Portal- Capillary beds connect to anterior lobe

  • Tract- Neurons connect to posterior lobe


Pituitary gland

  • Location- Sphenoid bone of the skull

  • Anterior Lobe

    • Produces Six hormones that Regulate

      • Reproduction

      • Growth

      • Activity of the Thyroid Gland

  • Posterior Lobe

    • No hormone production only storage of hypothalamic hormones


Thyroid

  • Largest endocrine gland

  • Location- Wrapped around anterior and lateral sides of Trachea, just below Larynx

  • Hormone- Thyroid Hormone

  • Function- Increases Metabolic Rate


Parathroid Glands

  • Location- Four glands imbedded on posterior surface of Thyroid

  • Hormone- Parathyroid Hormone

  • Function- Calcium Regulation


Cortex

Zona Glomerulosa: Outer layer

Zona Fasciculata: Middle Layer

Zona Reticularis- Inner Layer

Medulla

Location- 2 glands one superior to each Kidney.

Adrenal Glands


Cortex-

Zona Glomerulosa

Mineralocorticoids- Regulate Kidney Na+ and K+ excretion

Zona Fasiculata

Glucocorticoids- Stress and immune supression

Zona Reticulata-

Sex steroids- androgens precursor to sex hormones

Medulla- (Fight or Flight Response) Epinepherine and Norepinephrine

Adrenal Glands


Location- Inferior and posterior to Stomach

Pancreatic Islets

Clusters of endocrine cells

Function- Glucose Regulation

Pancreas


Gonads

  • Male- Testes

    • Secrete Androgens such as Testosterone

  • Female- Ovary

    • Secrete Estrogen and Progesterone


DNH- Anatomy


Homeostatic Control

  • Metabolic Rate

  • Growth Hormone

  • Blood Glucose Levels

  • Blood Calcium Levels

  • Water Retention

  • Stress


Metabolic Rate


Interactions between Metabolic Hormones

T4 & T3


Metabolic Rate

  • Hormones released in response to a decrease in T3 blood levels

  • Affects: All cells in the body except brain, spleen, testes, uterus and the thyroid gland

  • Results: Increase in basal metabolic rate, oxygen consumption and heat production


Hypothyroidism (Creatinism)

Children: mental retardation, development abnormalities

Adults: lethargy, obesity

Goiter

Hyperthyroidism (Graves’ Disease)

Weight loss, sweating, nervousness, sleeplessness

Goiter

-----a hypertrophy of the thyroid gland resulting from iodine deficiency

Disorders


Growth

  • Gland- Pituitary Gland

  • Hormone-

    • Growth Hormone: increases mitosis and cellular differentiation.

    • Secreted in response to Sleep, Trauma, Exercise, High protein meals, and Low blood sugar

  • Effects

    • Directly: Liver

    • Indirectly: Bone, Muscle, and Cartilage


Pituitary Dwarfism- Insufficient secretion of Growth Hormone

Gigantism- Over-secretion of Growth Hormone

Disorders


Blood Glucose Levels

  • Gland- Pancreas

  • Hormones

    • Insulin- increases uptake of glucose by cells

    • Glucagon- increases release of glucose by cells and increases liver glucose production

  • Released in response to…

    • Insulin: high blood glucose levels

    • Glucagon: low blood glucose levels

  • Effects-

    • Systemic

    • Liver


Disorders

  • Diabetes Mellitus- Disruption of Metabolism due to lack of insulin or lack of response to insulin.

  • Symptoms- Excessive Urine, Intense Thirst, and Ravenous Hunger

  • Type I- (Juvenile of Insulin Dependant) Destruction of Insulin Producing Cells

  • Type II- (Adult or Noninsulin Dependant) Target cells resistant to Insulin


Blood Calcium Levels

  • Gland- Parathyroid

  • Hormone- Parathyroid hormone

    • Released in response to low calcium levels

  • Effects

    • Kidneys- Retain Calcium

    • Bones- Release Calcium


Disorders

  • Hyper- or Hypo-parathyroidism

    • Hyper-parathyroidism: Over Secretion

      • Soft, Fragile Bones

      • Kidney stones

    • Hypo-parathyroidism: Under Secretion

      • Rapid Decline of Blood Calcium

      • Fatal


Water Retention

  • Gland- Hypothalamus

    • Stored and released by posterior pituitary

  • Hormone- ADH

    • Released in response to Dehydration and High Osmolarity (thickening) of blood

  • Effects?


Disorders????


Stress

  • Gland- Adrenal Cortex

  • Hormones

    • Glucocorticoids

  • Effect- Systemic


Disorders

  • Cushing Syndrome

    • Cause: Excess Glucocorticoids

    • Disrupts Protein and Fat Metabolism

    • Symptom is abnormal fat deposits, fatigue and exhaustion


Cushing Syndrome (cont.)

After Surgery


Dissection & Review

  • Cat Questions-

    • You won’t need to find the specific glands

    • You will need to know region of the body where found

    • You will need to know location of organs affected

  • Lab Notes at Library on Reserve

  • Research Papers Next Week Due

  • Reviews for final exam will be in Two Weeks.


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