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Flavor. FDSC 400. Flavor -Taste (trigeminal response) and Aroma-. VAPOR. FOOD. What type of molecules do you expect to have an aroma?. Basic Tastes. Sweet Salt Sour Bitter. Example Tastes. Sweet (sugar, saccharin) Sour (acids) Salt (err…) Bitter (caffeine, theobromine, quinine)

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Flavor

FDSC 400


Flavor-Taste (trigeminal response) and Aroma-

VAPOR

FOOD

What type of molecules do you expect to have an aroma?


Basic Tastes

  • Sweet

  • Salt

  • Sour

  • Bitter


Example Tastes

  • Sweet (sugar, saccharin)

  • Sour (acids)

  • Salt (err…)

  • Bitter (caffeine, theobromine, quinine)

  • Umami (monosodium glutamate)


Example Trigeminal Stimulants

  • Heat (capsaicin)

  • Cooling (menthol – also some aroma component)

  • Astringent (cold tea, banana peel)


Molecular Basis of Sweetness

  • -OH groups (but chloroform is sweet)

  • Acree Shallenberger AH/B concept


Terry Acree (Cornell)

AH/B Model

AH – Weak acid, B - electronegative group


Aroma Terms

  • Character impact compound

  • Flavor notes

  • Threshold values


Character Impact Compounds


Sources of Aromas in Food

  • Natural flavors

    • herbs and spices (Reaction after cutting)

    • Fruit (Biosynthesis during ripening)

  • Process flavors

    • browning

    • lipid oxidation

    • fermentations

  • Artificial flavors

    • character impact compounds


Allium sp.(onions, garlic, shallots, leeks)

S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide

Allinase

1-propenyl sulfenic acid

Chemical

Rearrangement w/heat

Chemical

rearrangement

Mercaptans

Disolfides

Trisulfides

Thiopropanal S-oxide

(lachrymator)


Lipoxygenase Generated Flavors

“green”

“melon, cucumber”


Terpenoids

(oranges)

(grapefruit)


Herbs and Spices

  • Herbs: Aromatic soft-stemmed plants

  • Spices: All other aromatic plant materials

    • Roots

    • Buds

    • Seeds

    • Bark


Vanilla

Vanillin

Seed pods of Planifolia

(a tropical orchid)


Volatile Blends

  • Peppermint: Menthol, menthone, menthofuran

  • Spearmint; Carvone, carvone derivatives

  • Nutmeg: Sabinine, pinene, myristicin


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