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Chromosomes

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Chromosomes. Chromosomes. Defined : Tightly coiled DNA Forms during cell division New chromosomes created for new cells 2 Parts: 1) Chromatids : two identical parts of a chromosome 2) Centromere : Joins chromatids together. Karyotype. Female.

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Presentation Transcript
slide2

Chromosomes

  • Defined: Tightly coiled DNA
  • Forms during cell division
    • New chromosomes created for new cells
  • 2 Parts:
    • 1) Chromatids: two identical parts of a chromosome
    • 2) Centromere: Joins chromatids together
slide3

Karyotype

Female

  • Defined: Picture of an individuals chromosomes
    • Identify sex & chromosome defects
  • Size of final pair identifies sex
    • Same size: XX = female
    • Different size: XY = male
  • Normal human will have 46 chromosomes

Male

down syndrome what s wrong
Down Syndrome: What’s Wrong?
  • Writing notation:
    • 1st: total chromosome #
    • 2nd: Sex chromosomes
    • 3rd: extra or missing
  • Down Syndrome: 47, XY, +21
slide5

Turner’s Syndrome: What’s Wrong?

  • Write the notation for Turner’s Syndrome.
  • 45, X, -23
  • or
  • 45, XO, -23
slide6

Patau’s Syndrome: What’s Wrong?

  • Write the notation for Patau’s Syndrome.
  • 47, XY, +13
klinefelter s syndrome what s wrong
Klinefelter’s Syndrome: What’s Wrong?
  • Write the notation for Klinefelter’s Syndrome.

47, XXY, +23

slide8

Diploid Cells

  • Diploid Cells = Cells with the full set of chromosomes
    • Paired chromosomes
  • Half of our chromosomes come from each parent (23 from each parent)
  • Somatic (non-sex) cells are diploid
  • Created by mitosis
  • Ex: Skin, Muscle, Nerve, Blood Cells
what is the human diploid chromosome number
What is the human diploid chromosome number?

Remember…Diploid = total number of chromosomes

Answer = 46

what is the human somatic chromosome number
What is the human somatic chromosome number?

Remember…Somatic cells are non-sex cells…

…Somatic cells are diploid…

…Diploid cells have the full set of chromosomes

Answer = 46

how many chromosomes are in brain cells
How many chromosomes are in brain cells?

Remember…Brain cells are non-sex cells…

…Somatic cells are non-sex cells…

…Somatic cells are diploid…

…Diploid cells have the full set of chromosomes

Answer = 46

slide12

Haploid Cells

  • Haploid Cells = Cells with ½ the total number of chromosomes
  • Gametes (sex cells) are the only haploid cells
    • Ex: Sperm, Egg, Pollen
  • Chromosome number is reduced by meiosis
  • How do humans get 46 chromosomes?

Haploid sperm cell (23)

+ Haploid egg cell (23)

= Diploid zygote (46)

what is the human haploid chromosome number
What is the human haploid chromosome number?

Remember…Haploid = half number of chromosomes

Answer = 23 chromosomes

what is the human gamete chromosome number
What is the human gamete chromosome number?

Remember…Gamete cells are sex cells…

…Sex cells are haploid…

…Haploid cells have ½ the set of chromosomes

Answer = 23

how many chromosomes are in female egg cells
How many chromosomes are in female egg cells?

Remember…Egg cells are sex cells…

…Sex cells are gametes…

…Gamete cells are haploid…

…Haploid cells have ½ the set of chromosomes

Answer = 23

slide17

Rat

Karyotype

What is the diploid chromosome number?

42

slide18

Rat

Karyotype

What is the haploid chromosome number?

21

slide19

Rat

Karyotype

How many chromosomes would be in somatic cells?

42

slide20

Rat

Karyotype

How many chromosomes would be in brain cells?

42

slide21

Rat

Karyotype

How many chromosomes would be in gamete cells?

21

slide22

Rat

Karyotype

How many chromosomes would be in egg cells?

21

slide23

Rat

Karyotype

How many chromosomes would be in muscle cells?

42

slide24

Rat

Karyotype

How many chromosomes would be in sperm cells?

21

slide25

Rat

Karyotype

  • Is this a male or female rat?

male

quick review
Quick Review
  • Chromsomes are tightly coiled strands of DNA
  • Diploid (somatic) cells contain the entire set of chromosomes
  • Haploid (gametes) cells contain only ½ the total number of chromosomes
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