Waste disposal oceanic oil spills and its effects on the environment
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Waste Disposal:  Oceanic Oil Spills and its Effects on the Environment. Service-Based Learning Activity Salimah Muhammad Walden University PUBH 8165-2 Dr. Howard Rubin July 24, 2011. ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH Waste Disposal:  Oceanic Oil Spills and its Effects on the Environment. OVERVIEW.

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Waste disposal oceanic oil spills and its effects on the environment

Waste Disposal:  Oceanic Oil Spills and its Effects on the Environment

Service-Based Learning Activity

Salimah Muhammad

Walden University

PUBH 8165-2

Dr. Howard Rubin

July 24, 2011


Environmental health waste disposal oceanic oil spills and its effects on the environment

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTHWaste Disposal:  Oceanic Oil Spills and its Effects on the Environment.

OVERVIEW

  • STAKEHOLDERS

  • OCEAN POLLUTION: A Humanitarian Problem

  • THEGULF OF MEXICO OIL SPILL

RESOLUTION AND PROGRESS


Environmental health waste disposal oceanic oil spills and its effects on the environment overview

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTHWaste Disposal:  Oceanic Oil Spills and its Effects on the Environment.OVERVIEW

How does ocean pollution effect our environment?

  • Ocean pollution puts people and marine life at risk. Mercury and polychlorinated bipheryl (PCB) contamination are among the vices that plague the ocean. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) publishes various warning against consuming aggregate amounts of fish, including shark, tile fish, king mackerel and swordfish. (Kowalski, 2010).

  • The vice we speak of here reflects the Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill occurring on April 20, 2010. Greatly affected were humans and marine life. Crude oil has devastating affects, crude oil evaporates into the air causing respiratory hazard in nearby locations, seafood is contaminated and in many cases wildlife (sea birds, turtles, fish and other marine life) are destroyed. (Kowalski, 2010).

Kowalski, K. M. (2010). Ocean of Trouble. Current Health Teens: Oct2010. Vol. 37 Issue 2 p. 16-19 4p.. AN 54016524

http://www.gulfspilloil.com/the-sticky-details-bp-oil-spill-facts-that-you-should-not-forget photo one

http://blogs.seattleweekly.com/dailyweekly/2010/07/the_consequences_of_the_oil_sp.php photo two


Waste disposal oceanic oil spills and its effects on the environment

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTHWaste Disposal:  Oceanic Oil Spills and its Effects on the Environment.OVERVIEW(continued)

Ocean Dumping and Dredge Material Regulations

  • EPA and the United States Army Corps of Engineers share

    regulation responsibility for dredged material. (EPA 2011).

  • The Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act

    (MPRSA) was passed in 1972. Also known as the Ocean Dumping

    Act, regulates transportation of disposal into ocean waters. (EPA

    2011).

  • The Clear Water Act (CWA) Section 404 governs release of dredged

    or fill material in United States coastal and inland waters. (EPA

    2011).

http://water.epa.gov/type/oceb/oceandumping/dredgedmaterial/dumpdredged.cfm


Waste disposal oceanic oil spills and its effects on the environment

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTHWaste Disposal:  Oceanic Oil Spills and its Effects on the Environment.STAKEHOLDERS

Adult Community Watch Groups

Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

Coastal Communities Gulf of Mexico

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

Healthcare Providers

Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA)

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)

National Marine Fisheries Service

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)

United States Army Corps of Engineers

Nutritionist

Restaurant Owners

Seafood Providers


Waste disposal oceanic oil spills and its effects on the environment

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTHWaste Disposal:  Oceanic Oil Spills and its Effects on the Environment.OCEAN POLLUTON: A Humanitarian Problem

  • Poignantly, put by a youth named “Ian F, a member of the National Ocean Sciences Bowl Team at La Jolla High School in California, what goes on in the ocean affects all parts of the world.” (Kowalski 2010). Ocean pollution is the world’s problem.

  • Ocean pollution puts humans, marine life and the planet at risk. Mercury alone causes harm to the nervous system and the chemicals PCBs causes cancer, developmental problems, hormone imbalances and skin problems. (Kowalski 2010).

  • A recent study conducted by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) on the coast lines of Georgia reported large amounts of PCBs were found in dolphins, in fact, the highest levels ever recorded in wildlife. (Kowalski 2010).

Kowalski, K. M. (2010). Ocean of Trouble. Current Health Teens: Oct2010. Vol. 37 Issue 2 p. 16-19 4p.. AN 54016524


Waste disposal oceanic oil spills and its effects on the environment

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTHWaste Disposal:  Oceanic Oil Spills and its Effects on the Environment.THE GULF OF MEXICO OIL SPILL

In this segment we will:

  • Describe The Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill

  • The Oil Spill Aftermath

  • Ecological Consequences (The Cycle of Environmental Impact)

  • The Spills Psychological and Health Affects.

Kowalski, K. M. (2010). Ocean of Trouble. Current Health Teens: Oct2010. Vol. 37 Issue 2 p. 16-19 4p.. AN 54016524

Klein. N.. (2011). After the Spill. Nations: Jan312011, Vol. 292 Issue 5, p11-19, 6p.2.

Seattle Weekly Blogs (2010). The Ecological and Health Consequences of the Oil Spill.

http://blogs.seattleweekly.com/dailyweekly/2010/07/the_consequences_of_the_oil_sp.php

Thomas, E., et al. (2010). Black Water Rising. Newsweek: Jun72010. Vol. 155 Issue 23, p.36-33, 8p.

Walsh, B. (2010). The Spill’s Psychic Toll. Time: Aug92010. Vol. 176 Issue 6, p32-34, 3p, 2


Waste disposal oceanic oil spills and its effects on the environment

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTHWaste Disposal:  Oceanic Oil Spills and its Effects on the Environment.THE GULF OF MEXICO OIL SPILL(continued)

Describe The Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill

  • An explosion occurred at the British Petroleum (BP) Deepwater Horizon oil rig on April 20, 2010 killing 11 people and igniting the worst oil spill the United States ever experienced. (Kowalski 2010).

  • Crude oil in the millions of gallons released into the Gulf of Mexico’s beaches and marshes affecting human and marine life. (Kowalski 2010).

Kowalski, K. M. (2010). Ocean of Trouble. Current Health Teens: Oct2010. Vol. 37 Issue 2 p. 16-19 4p.. AN 54016524


Waste disposal oceanic oil spills and its effects on the environment

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTHWaste Disposal:  Oceanic Oil Spills and its Effects on the Environment.THE GULF OF MEXICO OIL SPILL (continued)

The Oil Spill Aftermath

  • The financial cost for the BP cleanup amounted to a near $75 million. And, the cost of life at 11 was catastrophic.

  • BP was abnormally slow in responding to their oil spill disaster. In fact, it had taken several days for proper acknowledgment and they were not forthright regarding the amount of oil leaking (approximately 12, 000 - 19,000 barrels a day). (Thomas, et al. 2010).

Thomas, E., et al. (2010). Black Water Rising. Newsweek: Jun72010. Vol. 155 Issue 23, p.36-33, 8p.


Waste disposal oceanic oil spills and its effects on the environment

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTHWaste Disposal:  Oceanic Oil Spills and its Effects on the Environment.THE GULF OF MEXICO OIL SPILL(continued)

The Oil Spill Aftermath

  • Prior to the oil leak capping the well-head on July 15, 2010 oil sludge had began entering the coast lines of Florida, Louisiana and Mississippi. (Thomas et al. 2010). However, by this time approximately 7.9 million of crude oil had leaked.

  • The effects on human health was also monumental as gulf residents and workers whom aided in the cleanup consistently report major health problems that many scientist believe are associated to crude oil exposure. (Klein 2011). The ecological damage was also monumental.

Klein. N.. (2011). After the Spill. Nations: Jan312011, Vol. 292 Issue 5, p11-19, 6p.2.

Thomas, E., et al. (2010). Black Water Rising. Newsweek: Jun72010. Vol. 155 Issue 23, p.36-33, 8p


Waste disposal oceanic oil spills and its effects on the environment

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTHWaste Disposal:  Oceanic Oil Spills and its Effects on the Environment.Ecological Consequences (The Cycle of Environmental Impact)

The oil spill impacted 8,332 species

1,500 Crustaceans Species 18%

4,200 Other Species

48.4 %

1,400 Mollusks species 16.8 %

The Cycle of Environmental Impact

200 Bird Species 2.4%

1,200 Fish species 14.4%

Seattle Weekly Blogs (2010). The Ecological and Health Consequences of the Oil Spill.

http://blogs.seattleweekly.com/dailyweekly/2010/07/the_consequences_of_the_oil_sp.php


Waste disposal oceanic oil spills and its effects on the environment

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTHWaste Disposal:  Oceanic Oil Spills and its Effects on the Environment.Ecological Consequences (The Cycle of Environmental Impact) (continued)

Specie Mortality (July 5, 2010)

1,884 dead animals had been collected

1,387 of them were birds

444 were sea turtles

53 were dolphins and other animals

Seattle Weekly Blogs (2010). The Ecological and Health Consequences of the Oil Spill.

http://blogs.seattleweekly.com/dailyweekly/2010/07/the_consequences_of_the_oil_sp.php


Waste disposal oceanic oil spills and its effects on the environment

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTHWaste Disposal:  Oceanic Oil Spills and its Effects on the Environment.THE SPILLS PSYCHOLOGICAL AFFECTS

  • The mental health effects were widespread.

  • During the early days after the oil spill at least 37 percent (or 88,500 square miles) of federally controlled Gulf waters were closed to fishing, according to theNational Oceanic And Atmospheric Administration's Fisheries Service. (Nola 2011).

  • The height of the gulf exemplified a tremendous stress on parents and children alike.

Nola. (2011). Gulf seafood industry sputters back to life, a year after oil spill. Retrieved on July 14, 2011 from http://www.nola.com/news/gulf-oil-spill/index.ssf/2011/04/gulf_seafood_industry_sputters.html

Walsh, B. (2010). The Spill’s Psychic Toll. Time: Aug92010. Vol. 176 Issue 6, p32-34, 3p, 2 color photographs, 1 Map.


Waste disposal oceanic oil spills and its effects on the environment

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTHWaste Disposal:  Oceanic Oil Spills and its Effects on the Environment.THE HUMAN HEALTH AFFECTS

  • NIOSH conducted various bulk samples of the contaminated oil surfaces. The samples collected revealed various hydrocarbons including polynuclear aromatic, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and other compounds. (CDC 2010).

  • Response workers in the total of 826 were surveyed regarding their symptoms as a result of exposure to the oil chemicals. (CDC 2010).

  • Symptoms in all groups were similar, heat stress, headache, and upper respiratory symptoms. (CDC 2010).

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). Deepwater Horizon Response. NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation. Retrieved on August 3, 2011 from http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/oilspillresponse/gulfspillhhe.html


Waste disposal oceanic oil spills and its effects on the environment

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTHWaste Disposal:  Oceanic Oil Spills and its Effects on the Environment.RESOLUTION AND PROGRESS

  • The gulf has been deemed safe; however, many scientist look further into the devastation.

  • April 2011 marked The end of sensory testing of seafood for coastal areas like the Louisiana some standard of normalcy has returned. (Nola 2011). I would say normalcy is some what premature. Here is how Louisiana shrimp supply was directly effected. As a result of the oil spill shrimp was down “37 percent last year and crab down 39 percent compared to the average of the past four years, according to state Wildlife and Fisheries landing numbers.

Klein, N. (2011). After the Spill. Nations: Jan312011, Vol 292 Issue 5, p11-19, 6p.2. AN 57290425.

Nola. (2011). Gulf seafood industry sputters back to life, a year after oil spill. Retrieved on July 14, 2011 from http://www.nola.com/news/gulf-oil-spill/index.ssf/2011/04/gulf_seafood_industry_sputters.html


Waste disposal oceanic oil spills and its effects on the environment

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTHWaste Disposal:  Oceanic Oil Spills and its Effects on the Environment.RESOLUTION AND PROGRESS (continued)

Government monitoring organizations are branches of the NOAA:

NRDA in NOAA is conducted by the Damage Assessment, Remediation and Restoration Program (DARRP):(NOAA 2011).

  • Create and restore wetlands

  • Create oyster reefs and other shellfish habitat

  • Restore coral and seagrass beds

  • Acquire, restore, and protect waterfowl habitat

  • Conduct species recovery and monitoring programs

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). (2011) Retrieved on July 21, 2011 from http://response.restoration.noaa.gov/book_shelf/1959_deepwater-Horizon-NRDA-ORR-web-5-7-10.pdf


Waste disposal oceanic oil spills and its effects on the environment

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTHWaste Disposal:  Oceanic Oil Spills and its Effects on the Environment.CONCLUSION

The human disaster due to the British Petroleum (BP) oil spill on April 20, 2010 killed 11 people. The loss of life and wildlife were detrimental. Some scientists believe that the Gulf is safe; however, the latent effects of VOCs and other compounds are real and ongoing. The overall environmental affects may never experience resolution as result of this oil spill. For these reasons it is imperative to be educated as to how the damage is assessed from a food chain, human life and health hazards standpoint. Continued Epidemiological studies are needed for latent affects of dispersants collected from various sites and surfaces. Communities and respective government and independent agencies must continue to work collectively toward continual remediation and resolution.


Environmental health waste disposal oceanic oil spills and its effects on the environment1

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTHWaste Disposal:  Oceanic Oil Spills and its Effects on the Environment.

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). Deepwater Horizon Response. NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation. Retrieved on August 3, 2011 from http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/oilspillresponse/gulfspillhhe.html

Gulf Oil Spill (2011). BP Oil Spill Facts. http://www.gulfspilloil.com/the-sticky-details-bp-oil-spill-facts-that-you-should-not-forget photo one

Klein, N. (2011). After the Spill. Nations: Jan312011, Vol 292 Issue 5, p11-19, 6p.2. AN 57290425.

Kowalski, K. M. (2010). Ocean of Trouble. Current Health Teens: Oct2010. Vol. 37 Issue 2 p. 16-19 4p. AN 54016524

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). (2011) Retrieved on July 21, 2011 from http://response.restoration.noaa.gov/book_shelf/1959_deepwater-Horizon-NRDA-ORR-web-5-7-10.pdf

Nola. (2011). Gulf seafood industry sputters back to life, a year after oil spill. Retrieved on July 14, 2011 from

http://www.nola.com/news/gulf-oil-spill/index.ssf/2011/04/gulf_seafood_industry_sputters.html

Microsoft Presentation Templates. (2003). Globe on Water Design. Retrieved on July 10, 2011 from http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/templates/sample-presentation-slides-globe-on-water-design-TC001136801.aspx.

Seattle Weekly Blogs (2010). The Ecological and Health Consequences of the Oil Spill.

http://blogs.seattleweekly.com/dailyweekly/2010/07/the_consequences_of_the_oil_sp.php photo two

Thomas, E., Stone, D., Hosenball, M., Isikoff, M., Conant., E., Clift, E., Hirsh, M., Campo-Flores, A., Y, I. (2010). Black Water Rising. Newsweek: Jun72010. Vol. 155 Issue 23, p.36-33, 8p.

United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (2011). Waste: Dredged Material Management. Ocean Dumping and Dredged Material Management. Retrieved on July 16, 2011 from http://water.epa.gov/type/oceb/oceandumping/dredgedmaterial/dumpdredged.cfm.

Walsh, B. (2010). The Spill’s Psychic Toll. Time: Aug92010. Vol. 176 Issue 6, p32-34, 3p, 2 color photographs, 1 Map.


Waste disposal oceanic oil spills and its effects on the environment

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTHWaste Disposal:  Oceanic Oil Spills and its Effects on the Environment.Sources for Additional Reading

Campagna, C., Short, F., Polidoro, B., McManus, R., Coletta, B., Pilcher, N. J., De Mitcheson, Sadovy Y., Stuart, Simon., Carpenter, K. E., (2011). Gulf of Mexico Oil Blowout Increases Risks to Globally Threatened Species. BioScience: May 2011, Vol. 61 Issue 5 p393-397, 5p 1 Chart.

Tangley, L. (2011). Gulf Coast Revival (Cover Story). National Wildlife: Apr/May 2011. Vol. 49 Issue 3, 22-29, 8p.

United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (2011). Dredged Material Management. Action Agenda for the Next Decade. Retrieved on August 3, 2011 from http://water.epa.gov/type/oceb/oceandumping/dredgedmaterial/upload/2009_02_27_oceans_ndt_publications_2003_action_agenda.pdf


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