Chapter 7 life in the new nation
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Chapter 7 Life in the New Nation. Section 2. Learning Targets. I can describe the spirit of improvement in American society during the early 1800s, including women’s role in promoting virtue.

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Chapter 7 life in the new nation

Chapter 7 Life in the New Nation

Section 2

Learning targets
Learning Targets

  • I can describe the spirit of improvement in American society during the early 1800s, including women’s role in promoting virtue.

  • I can show how the Industrial Revolution affected the nation’s economy through inventions such as the cotton gin.

  • I can provide example of the advances that produced “revolutions” in transporting and communication.

The spirit of improvement
The Spirit of Improvement

  • One way to improve life was through education

  • Mercy Otis Warren- wrote History of the American Revolution, which encouraged women to take up scholarly interests but to balance them with their domestic duties

  • Benjamin Rush- Doctor and scientist. Rush suggested mental illness was often a result of physical disease instead of the devil

  • Charles Wilson Peale- Created the 1st museum. Housed art and science, which was thought as luxury


  • Noah Webster- wanted better education for all, not just the prosperous (rich)

  • Webster went on to create the first major dictionary in the United States. He also created The American Spelling Book.

  • State constitutions required free education for all but that was hardly the case as many students went to academies/private schools

  • Schools had to teach Republican Virtues- things needed to govern yourself including, sacrificing individual needs for the good of the community, self-reliance, industry and frugality

The role of women
The Role of Women

  • The idea of showing the standard of republican virtues was then passed on to women.

  • Women would have an influence on the men who would rule, and vote in our nation.

  • To learn these virtues women would need to be allowed to attend school

  • Many schools created “female departments” for girls to attend

Industrial revolution
Industrial Revolution

  • Industrial Revolution- Increasing production by using machines powered by sources other than humans or animals.

  • Several British inventions sparked this idea to help the textile or cloth-weaving industry

  • James Watt created the steam engine. It used the force from steam to create energy.

  • This invention was kept secret by the British. Anyone who knew about the design was not allowed to emigrate, or move from the country.

The industrial revolution
The Industrial Revolution

  • Samuel Slater- Slater emigrated to the US from GB and replicated the steam engine. By the time he died he was worth a million $.

  • The steam engine spread quickly in the New England region of the US

  • Robert Fulton- Credited with creating the steam boat – it used a steam engine to power the boat.

  • It could travel against the current

Eli whitney
Eli Whitney

  • Eli Whitney- Gun maker who credited with the idea of Interchangeable Parts (all parts are made to an exact standard)

  • During the late 1700’s-early 1800’s all parts were individually made

  • Whitney also created the cotton gin (a machine that separated seeds from cotton)

  • In 1 day a person could clean 1,000 lbs of cotton with the gin and only 1 lb without it

Cotton gin effects
Cotton Gin Effects

  • Profit per lb of cotton skyrocketed and the amount planted rose

  • It became the staple (main) crop for many southern planters

  • Planters looked for new land to grow cotton and settled in AL, MS, LA and TX

  • Slavery rose in the south to keep up with the large amounts of cotton being grown

Transportation revolution
Transportation Revolution

  • Canals or artificial (man made) waterways were created to help with trade and transportation

  • The most famous canal was the Erie Canal which connected New York to Lake Erie

  • Roads were created to help with travel.

  • They were built by private individuals who would charge a toll, or a fee, to use the road.

  • An attendant would wait, collect the toll and then turn a pike, or a bar, that blocked the road- these roads were called turnpikes

  • The Cumberland Road (national built road using gravel and stone from Maryland to Ohio) was built by the government

  • Railroads were more durable and efficient.


  • Post Offices went from 75 in 1790 to 8,450 in 1830.

  • This made it easier to communicate with people in distant places

  • This also helped create a network of information by delivering newspapers, books and magazines.