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VDT OCCUPATIONAL ERGONOMICS. VDT OCCUPATIONAL ERGONOMICS Objectives. Identify and Evaluate the Ergonomic Risk Factors Associated With VDT Environments Develop Effective Engineering and Administrative Controls to Minimize Exposures Associated With VDT Environments. CURRENT VDT ISSUES.

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vdt occupational ergonomics objectives
VDTOCCUPATIONAL ERGONOMICSObjectives
  • Identify and Evaluate the Ergonomic Risk Factors Associated With VDT Environments
  • Develop Effective Engineering and Administrative Controls to Minimize Exposures Associated With VDT Environments
current vdt issues
CURRENT VDT ISSUES
  • Visual Discomfort
  • Electromagnetic Frequency ( EMF ) Exposure
  • Fatigue / Stress
  • Musculoskeletal Disorders
visual discomfort complaints
VISUAL DISCOMFORTComplaints
  • Eye Strain - Largest Single Complaint
  • Burning / Itching Eyes
  • Headaches
  • Cataracts
visual discomfort causes
VISUAL DISCOMFORTCauses
  • Eye Muscle Strain / Fatigue
  • Dry Eyes
  • Uncorrected Vision Problems
  • Vision Correcting Eyewear - Focusing Difficulties
  • Possible Indoor Air Quality ( IAQ ) Relationship
visual discomfort current consensus
VISUAL DISCOMFORTCurrent Consensus
  • No Evidence That VDT Work Leads to Visual Damage
  • No Proven Correlation Between VDT Usageand Cataracts
  • Eye Muscle Strain / Fatigue
    • Lighting / Glare
    • Monitor Height & Distance to Eyes
    • Visual Concentration on Monitor
  • Dry Eyes
    • VDT Environment Less Humid
    • Eye Blink Rate: 3. 6 / Min VDT vs. 18. 4 / Min Normal
  • Regular Vision Exams Recommended
visual discomfort control measures
VISUAL DISCOMFORTControl Measures
  • Eye: Strain / Fatigue / Dryness
    • Lighting / Glare
      • VDT: 50 fc / 500 Lux Optimum Light Level
      • Office: 100 fc / 1,000 Lux Optimum Light Level
      • Don’t Place VDT Directly Under Bright Overhead Lights
      • Provide Indirect Lighting and Supplement With Task Lighting
      • Place VDT Parallel to Windows
      • Low Reflective Walls / Work Surfaces
      • Anti-Glare Screens: Last Resort Only
visual discomfort control measures1
VISUAL DISCOMFORTControl Measures
  • Eye: Strain / Fatigue / Dryness
    • Ensure Monitor Display Quality
      • No Apparent Flicker (Older Monitors)
      • Adjustable Brightness and Contrast
      • High Resolution and Polarity
    • Adjust Monitor Height and Distance
      • Top Character Line on Screen 15 - 20 DegreesBelow Horizontal Eye Level & Monitor Angled Appropriately Upward
      • Eye to Screen Distance 20”- 40” ( Operator Preference Studies 25. 5”- 31” )
visual discomfort control measures2
VISUAL DISCOMFORTControl Measures
  • Eye: Strain / Fatigue / Dryness
    • Eye Focusing / Muscle Defatigue Exercises
      • 1 Min. Rest / Exercise Break ( Focus / Refocus ) After 15 Min. Continuous VDT Work
    • Remember to Blink Eyes Frequently
      • > 18 Blinks / Min. Minimum to Refresh Eyes
    • Contact Lens Wearers Should SupplementOwn Tears Via Eye / Rewetting Drops
visual discomfort control measures3
VISUAL DISCOMFORTControl Measures
  • Vision / Eyewear
    • Regular Eye Exams
      • New Hire / Transfer
      • Annual
    • VDT Specific Corrective Lenses
      • Fixed Focal Length
      • No Bi / Tri-Focals
    • Inform Optometrist / Ophthalmologist of VDT Work and Eye / Screen Distance
      • Some VDT Users May Need a Correction Diff.From One Needed For Reading / Driving
electromagnetic frequency emf exposure complaints
ELECTROMAGNETICFREQUENCY (EMF) EXPOSUREComplaints
  • Reproductive Disorders
    • Birth Defects
    • Stillbirths
    • Spontaneous Abortions
  • Cancer
    • Leukemia
    • Lymphomas
    • Central Nervous System
  • Cataracts
  • Clusters of Reported Problems
emf exposure concerns
EMF EXPOSUREConcerns
  • EMF Radiation ?
    • Ionizing
      • X-Ray
    • Non-Ionizing
      • Infrared
      • Microwave
      • Radiowave
      • VLF
      • ELF
  • Or Are Other Factors the Real Issue ?
emf exposure current consensus
EMF EXPOSURECurrent Consensus
  • Recent Studies Conclude: Emissions of All Types of EMFs Are Well Below Accepted Occupational and Environmental Health and Safety Limits
  • No Direct Causal Link Established BetweenVDT Use and Reproductive Disorders, Canceror Cataract Formation
  • Other Factors ( Smoking, Alcohol, Drugs, Age,Socioeconomic Status, etc. ) Have a Greater Known Effect
  • Work Stress May be a Factor
  • More Research Needed / Ongoing to Determine Correlational / Causal Links
emf exposure control measures
EMF EXPOSUREControl Measures
  • Monitor / CPU Position
    • Front: Min. 12” Away = < 1 milligauss (mG)
    • Rear: Min. 24” Away = < 1 milligauss (mG)
      • Essentially “ 0 ” Exposure
  • Minimize Exposure to Known Reproductive and Carcinogenic Risk Factors
    • Smoking, Alcohol & Drugs
  • Workstation and Job Task Design / Redesignto Minimize Work Stress and Maximize Comfort Level
fatigue stress complaints
Fatigue / StressComplaints
  • Generalized Aches and Pains
  • Constant Fatigue
  • Sleeping / Eating Disorders
  • Increased Reliance Upon Coping Mechanisms
    • Smoking, Alcohol & Drugs
  • Ulcers
  • High Blood Pressure
  • Coronary Heart / Artery Disease
fatigue stress causes
Fatigue / StressCauses
  • Anxiety About Job Security
  • Anxiety About Ability to Operate Equipment
    • Computer Phobia
  • Job Ambiguities
  • Perceived Lack of Control Over Job
  • Concerns About Productivity
  • Shiftwork / OT / Repetitive Work
  • Co-worker / Supervisor / Personal Issues
  • Workstation Design / Layout
fatigue stress current consensus
Fatigue / StressCurrent Consensus
  • Lack of Job Satisfaction is Felt by Manyto be the Greatest Stressor
  • Stress is Related to Overall Job Contentand Not Just VDT Use
  • Physical Stressors Associated With Workstation Design / Layout Compound Effects of Mental Stressors
  • Economic Climate Can Significantly Impact Job Fatigue / Stress Levels
fatigue stress control measures
Fatigue / StressControl Measures
  • Design / Redesign Jobs to IncreaseEmployee Control and Involvement
  • Keep Employees Informed About Job Status, Anticipated Changes andProgress in Achieving Goals
  • Provide Ergonomically Well-DesignedWorkstations
  • Train Employees in Proper Adjustment of Workstation Features
  • Promote On / Off Job Wellness Programs
musculoskeletal disorders complaints
Musculoskeletal DisordersComplaints
  • # 1 - Neck / Shoulder Pain
  • # 2 - Low Back Pain
  • # 3 - CTS / Wrist Pain
musculoskeletal disorders causes
MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERSCauses
  • Workstation Design / Adjustment
    • Postural Positioning
    • Dynamic Movement
    • Static Loading
      • Chair, Desk, Keyboard, Monitor, DocumentHolder, Telephone, etc.
  • Task Design
    • Concentrated Effort / Repetition
      • Physical, Mental & Visual
  • Physical Environment
    • Lighting / Noise / Temperature
musculoskeletal disorders current consensus
MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERSCurrent Consensus
  • Problems More Closely Related to the TaskThan to the Equipment
  • Continuous VDT Work Defined as
    • > 2,000 Reps / Hr
    • < 30 Sec / Cycle
    • > 3.5 Hrs / Day Continuous ( > 50 % of Workshift )
  • Symptom Severity for Upper Extremity and Low Back Injuries / Discomfort Closely Related to Typing Speed and Length of Time Typing
musculoskeletal disorders current consensus1
MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERSCurrent Consensus
  • Prolonged Excessive Postural Deviations Dueto Poor Workstation Design / AdjustmentSignificantly Contribute to Injury / Discomfort
  • Appropriate Task and Workstation Design / Adjustment Can Alleviate Majority of Injuries / Discomfort
musculoskeletal disorders control measures
MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERSControl Measures
  • Chair - Maximum Adjustability
    • Height - 5 Caster Base
    • Seat Pan - Waterfall Edge
    • Backrest - Lumbar Support
    • Armrests - Optional but Preferred
  • Footrest - Adjustable Height / Tilt
    • Relieves Body Weight Pressure on Spine
    • Improves Foot Position Relativeto Chair Height
musculoskeletal disorders control measures1
MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERSControl Measures
  • Monitor
    • Adjustability For Height and Distance
      • Top Character Line 15 - 20 Degrees Below HorizontalEye Level & Monitor Angled Appropriately Upward
      • Eye to Screen Distance 20” - 40” ( Operator Preference Studies 25. 5”- 31” )
      • Articulating Monitor Stand
  • Keyboard / Mouse
    • Detached For Ease of Movement
    • Adjustability For Height and Distance
      • Articulating Tray
    • Wrist Support and Mouse Pad
    • Detached Numeric Keypad
musculoskeletal disorders control measures2
MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERSControl Measures
  • Desk / Workstation
    • Adjustable Desktop Height
    • Sufficient Under-Desk Legroom / Clearance
    • Good Housekeeping
  • Office Equipment
    • Document Holder at Monitor Height
      • Primarily View Monitor: Monitor in Direct View
      • Primarily View Document: Document in Direct View
    • Calculator, Telephone, etc.
      • Within Individual Comfortable Reach
      • Telephone Handset - Shoulder Rest or Headset
musculoskeletal disorders control measures3
MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERSControl Measures
  • Posture
    • Head / Neck: Vertical and Forward Facing
    • Shoulders: Comfortable / Neutral Posture
    • Upper / Lower Arms: 90 Degree Angle
    • Wrists: Horizontal
    • Back: Upright / Lumbar Support / Contact Backrest at All Times
    • Upper / Lower Legs: 90 Degree Angle
    • Feet: Supported by Footrest / Reposition Periodically
musculoskeletal disorders control measures4
MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERSControl Measures
  • Posture
    • Office Equipment Within IndividualComfortable Reach
    • Monitor, Keyboard and Chair Adjustments Are Interrelated
    • Training: Proper Posture / Adjustment of Workstation Features
      • New Hire / Transfer / Periodic Refresher
      • Supervisor Enforcement
musculoskeletal disorders control measures5
MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERSControl Measures
  • Task Design
    • Provide Ergonomically Well-DesignedWorkstations
    • Design / Redesign Jobs to IncreaseEmployee Control and Involvement
    • 1 Min. Rest / Exercise Break (Stretching / Eyes - Focus / Refocus)After 15 Min. Continuous VDT Work
    • 15 Min. Rest Break (10 Min. Minimum)after 2 Hrs. Continuous VDT Work (NIOSH)
musculoskeletal disorders control measures6
MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERSControl Measures
  • Environment
    • Humidity: 50 - 70 %
    • Room Temperature: 70 - 75 Degrees ( F )
    • Lighting: VDT - 50 fc / 500 Lux Optimum Office - 100 fc / 1,000 Lux Optimum
vdt occupational ergonomics summary evaluation control measures
VDTOCCUPATIONAL ERGONOMICSSummaryEvaluation / Control Measures
  • Total Job Environment
    • Workstation Design & Adjustment
    • Physical Environment
    • Task Design
    • Training
  • Emphasize Good Ergonomics
    • Design / Redesign / Adjustment
  • Promote On / Off Job Wellness
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