Words are Symbols. Arbitrary —they are not intrinsically connected to what they represent Ambiguous —their meanings are not clear cut or fixed Abstract —they are not concrete or tangible. Language and Culture Reflect Each Other. Language and cultural life are intricately interconnected.
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Communication rules are shared understandings of what communication means and what behaviors are appropriate in various situations.
1.Regulative Rules regulate interaction by specifying when, how, where, and with whom to talk about certain things.
2.Constitutive Rules define how certain communicative acts are to be interpreted.
I am withdrawing
more because you
are pursuing harder.
“casual” “messy” “slob”
“assertive” “aggressive” “bully”
Rush Limbaugh’s “feminazi” instead of “feminist”
“geezer” or “old fogies” rather than “senior citizen”
Abstracting can distort our thinking by stereotyping whole classes of people in a generalization.Symbols Organize Perceptions
We have to generalize to organize our thoughts. But we must reflect on stereotypes and be alert to differences among people.
ME is the critic, analyst, social conscious.
I is the performer,
Using I-language allows you to own your own feelings while also explaining to others how you interpret their behaviors.
You hurt me.
I feel hurt when you ignore what I say.
You make me feel small.
Ifeel small when you tell me that I’m selfish.
You’re so domineering.
When you shout, I feel dominated.
“Politicians are crooked.”
“A number of politicians have been shown to be dishonest.”
“Don is irresponsible.”
Indexing reminds us that our evaluation applies only to specific times and circumstances.
“On the Task Committee, Don was irresponsible.”Indexing
View the following video clip and then answer the questions that follow based on material presented in this chapter. A script of the scenario can be found at the end of Chapter 4.
Identify examples of you-language in this conversation. How would you change it to I-language.