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Specialty Engineering As Described in the INCOSE Handbook August 2, 2012 B. David Krigelman, President Krigelman and Associates, Inc. Melbourne, FL 32940 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Specialty Engineering As Described in the INCOSE Handbook August 2, 2012 B. David Krigelman, President Krigelman and Associates, Inc. Melbourne, FL 32940. INCOSE SE Handbook. Section 9. SYSTEMS ENGINEERING HANDBOOK A GUIDE FOR SYSTEM LIFE CYCLE PROCESSES AND ACTIVITIES

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Specialty Engineering As Described in the INCOSE Handbook August 2, 2012 B. David Krigelman, President Krigelman and Associates, Inc. Melbourne, FL 32940

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Specialty engineering as described in the incose handbook august 2 2012 b david krigelman president krigelman and associates inc melbourne fl 32940

Specialty Engineering

As Described in the INCOSE Handbook

August 2, 2012

B. David Krigelman, President

Krigelman and Associates, Inc.

Melbourne, FL 32940


Incose se handbook

INCOSE SE Handbook

Section 9

SYSTEMS ENGINEERING HANDBOOK

A GUIDE FOR SYSTEM LIFE CYCLE

PROCESSES AND ACTIVITIES

INCOSE‐TP‐2003‐002‐03.2.1

January 2011


Specialty engineering activities

Specialty Engineering Activities

9 Specialty Engineering Activities

9.1 Design for Acquisition Logistics – Integrated Logistics Support

9.2 Cost‐Effectiveness Analysis

9.3 Electromagnetic Compatibility Analysis

9.4 Environmental Impact Analysis

9.5 Interoperability Analysis

9.6 Life‐Cycle Cost Analysis

9.7 Manufacturing and Producibility Analysis

9.8 Mass Properties Engineering Analysis

9.9 Safety & Health Hazard Analysis

9.10 Sustainment Engineering Analysis

9.11 Training Needs Analysis

9.12 Usability Analysis/Human Systems Integration

9.13 Value Engineering

9.14 References

Listed alphabetically – not by importance.


Ilities influencing the system design

“‐ilities” Influencing the System Design

  • Acquisition Logistics focus on design requirements criteria applicable to all system elements. Sometimes referred to as the “‐ilities,” these criteria comprise, but are not limited to, the following list of engineering specializations:

    • Affordability (LCC – Life Cycle Cost)

    • Cost/System Effectiveness

    • Disposability (Recycling/Retirement)

    • Maintainability

    • Packaging, Handling, Storage & Transportation (PHS&T)

    • Producibility (Manufacturability)

    • Reconfigurability (Flexibility/Standardization)

    • Reliability

    • Security

    • Supportability (Serviceability)

    • Survivability; and Vulnerability

The Acquisition Logistics process includes elements of the Support System Engineering process.


9 1 design for acquisition logistics

9.1 Design for Acquisition Logistics

Relationship between ILS analysis activities

The overall integrated system includes the mission system and the support system (Support System Engineer).


9 1 2 ilities analysis methods

9.1.2 “‐ilities” Analysis Methods

  • 9.1.2.1 Failure Modes Effects and Criticality Analysis

  • 9.1.2.2 Level of Repair Analysis

  • 9.1.2.3 Logistic Support Analysis/Supportability Analysis

  • 9.1.2.4 Reliability Centered Maintenance Analysis

  • 9.1.2.5 Survivability Analysis

  • 9.1.2.6 System Security Analysis

Design for Acquisition Logistics derives the ILS requirements and impacts the design from a logistics standpoint.


9 1 2 ilities analysis methods1

9.1.2 “‐ilities” Analysis Methods

  • Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability

  • These are major system drivers for the use of support resources and the related in‐service costs.

    • Reliability is concerned with the probability of the system‐of‐interest working when it should.

    • Maintainability is concerned with keeping the system working and the ease of putting things right once they have gone wrong.

    • Availability is the probability that the system, when used under stated conditions, will operate satisfactorily.

Reliability (MTBF) and Maintainability (MTTR) factors drive system Operational Availability and Life Cycle Cost.


9 1 2 1 fmeca

9.1.2.1 FMECA

Failure Modes Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA)

  • Record and determine the following:

    • What functions the equipment is required to perform

    • How these functions could fail

    • Possible causes of the failures

    • Effects the failures would have on the equipment or system

    • The criticality of the failures

  • FMECA should be performed early enough to influence equipment design

  • The aim is to minimize maintenance requirements and thereby cost.

There are two methods for performing a FMECA: top-down (functional) and bottoms-up (Bill of Materials).


9 1 2 2 lora

9.1.2.2 LORA

Level of Repair Analysis (LORA)

  • Determines (in most cases, from an economic point of view) if the element or system should be discarded or repaired

  • If repairing the item is feasible, establish where the repair should take place (e.g., at home, locally, or at the factory), expressed as an organizational level

  • This analysis is conducted throughout the system life cycle

  • The handling of a system element may change based on experiences from prior decisions.

The FMECA-based LORA is sometimes referred to as an ORLA (Optimum Repair Level Analysis)


9 1 2 3 lsa sa

9.1.2.3 LSA/SA

Logistic Support Analysis (LSA)/Supportability Analysis

  • Analyzes the support implications of system elements as they are being developed

  • Identifies features of the design that could result in excessive expense during the operational life of the system

  • These items can be the subject of trade‐offs to revise the design to reduce later costs

  • LSA can identify all the logistical resources necessary to support the equipment and the impact on the existing support infrastructure

  • LSA is only cost effective where it is likely to generate benefit in terms of a more supportable design or better defined support requirements and, hence, reduced LCC.

The LSA/SA process is now referred to as Logistics Management Information (LMI).


9 1 2 4 rcm

9.1.2.4 RCM

Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) Analysis

  • Assesses the most cost efficient preventive maintenance program for the system

  • Best initiated very early in the Development Stage and evolves throughout the Production Stage

  • Can also successfully be introduced for systems already in operation

  • Can be accomplished using a decision tree to lead the analyst through a logical sequence of the nature and frequency of applicable preventive maintenance tasks.

Four possible analysis outcomes: scheduled maintenance, run to failure, condition-based maintenance, system redesign


9 1 2 5 survivability analysis

9.1.2.5 Survivability Analysis

Survivability Analysis

  • Performed when items must perform critical functions in a hostile operational environment

  • Threats to be considered include conventional, electronic, nuclear, biological, chemical, and other weapons

  • As well as terrorism or sabotage, erratic human behavior, and harsh environmental conditions, such as ocean salinity

  • A system is said to be survivable if it can fulfill its purpose in a timely manner, even in the presence of attacks or failures

  • Because of the severe consequences of failure, organizations increasingly focus on system survivability as a key risk topic.

SA is a key element during design of a system to meet Anti-Terrorism/Force Protection (AT/FP) requirements.


9 1 2 6 system security analysis

9.1.2.6 System Security Analysis

System Security Analysis

  • Identifies and evaluates system vulnerabilities to known or postulated security threats

  • Recommends means to eliminate the vulnerabilities or to at least reduce the susceptibility to compromise, damage, or destruction to an acceptable level of risk.

SSA is a key element during design of a system to meet hardware and software security requirements.


9 2 cost effectiveness analysis

9.2 Cost‐Effectiveness Analysis

  • Comparison of the relative spending (costs) and outcomes (effects) associated with two or more courses of action

  • Helps derive critical system performance and design requirements, and supports decision making

  • Military and government acquisitions are under the scrutiny of auditing offices to demonstrate that the money spent has delivered the expected benefits

  • Cost‐As‐An‐Independent‐Variable builds on cost‐effectiveness studies to determine an objective cost for the system acquisition.

CE analysis compares the Return on Investment (ROI) between two or more competing designs.


9 3 electromagnetic compatibility analysis

9.3 Electromagnetic Compatibility Analysis

  • Performed on electric or electronic items to ensure that they can perform in their intended electromagnetic environments

  • Also ensures that items that intentionally radiate radio frequency energy comply with commercial, government, and relevant international policies for radio frequency spectrum management and do not interfere with other signals (i.e., EMI)

EMC includes analysis/test to meet conducted and radiated modes and emission and susceptibility aspects.


9 4 environmental impact analysis

9.4 Environmental Impact Analysis

  • Control and restrict the environmental impact that a system may inflict on the biosphere

  • ISO 14000 series of Environmental Management standards are an excellent resource for analysis and assessment methods for the protection of the environment

  • The focus of environmental impact analysis is on potential deleterious effects of a proposed system’s development, construction, use, and disposal

  • Disposal analysis is a significant analysis area within environmental impact analysis.

EI analysis/assessment are elements of system design to meet EPA certification requirements.


9 5 interoperability analysis

9.5 Interoperability Analysis

  • Interoperability depends on the compatibility of elements of a large and complex system (which may sometimes be called a system‐of‐systems or a family of systems to work as a single entity

  • Organizations want to ensure that their sunken investment in legacy elements of the envisioned new system is protected and that new elements added over time will work seamlessly with the legacy elements to comprise a unified system

  • Compliance with standards remains one of the keys to interoperability.

Interoperability is an important factor when a system must interface successfully with foreign (NATO) systems.


9 6 life cycle cost analysis

9.6 Life‐Cycle Cost Analysis

  • Life‐cycle cost (LCC) analysis is a method of economic evaluation that takes into account all relevant costs of a system over a given period of time adjusting for differences in the timing of those costs

  • Decisions made during the early stages of a project inevitably have an impact on future expenditures

  • An LCC analysis results in a timetable of expenses so that an organization can cover its costs. If all costs cannot be covered, it may not be possible to produce the system.

Life Cycle Cost is sometimes referred to as Total Cost of Ownership – includes Government and contractor costs.


9 6 lcc analysis methods

9.6 LCC Analysis Methods

  • Expert Judgment – Consultation with one or more experts. Good for sanity check, but may not be consistent

  • Analogy – Reasoning by comparing the proposed project with one or more completed projects that are judged to be similar, with corrections added for known differences. May be acceptable for early estimations

  • Parkinson Technique – Defines work to fit the available resources

LCC analysis includes top-down (parametric model) and bottoms-up (accounting model) methodololgies.


9 6 lcc analysis methods cont d

9.6 LCC Analysis Methods (cont’d)

  • Price‐To‐Win – Focuses on providing an estimate, and associated solution, at or below the price judged necessary to win the contract

  • Top‐Down – Based on developing costs from the overall characteristics of the project from the top level of the architecture

  • Bottom‐Up – Identifies and estimates costs for each element separately and sums the contributions.

The GE/RCA-developed PRICE model was an early mainframe-based batch process LCC methodology.


9 6 lcc analysis methods cont d1

9.6 LCC Analysis Methods (cont’d)

  • Algorithmic (parametric) – Uses mathematical algorithms to produce cost‐estimates as a function of cost‐driver variables, based on historical data

  • Design‐to‐Cost or Cost‐As‐An‐Independent‐ Variable – Works on a design solution that stays within a predetermined set of resources

  • Wide‐band Delphi techniques – Builds estimates from multiple technical and domain experts. Estimates are only as good as the experts

  • Taxonomy method – Hierarchical structure or classification scheme for the architecture.

Several variations of LCC analysis exist. The goal is to perform sensitivity analysis to identify cost drivers.


Lcc costs

LCC Costs

  • LCC normally includes the following costs:

LCC cost phases include research and development, acquisition, operations and support and disposal.


9 7 manufacturing and producibility analysis

9.7 Manufacturing and Producibility Analysis

  • The capability to produce a system element is as essential as the ability to properly define and design it

  • A designed product that cannot be manufactured causes design rework and program delays with concomitant cost overruns

  • Producibility analysis is a key task in developing low‐cost, quality products

  • Critical producibility requirements are identified during system analysis and design and included in the program risk analysis, if necessary

Manufacturing/Producibility analysis determines the best way to build a design from a cost/schedule standpoint.


9 8 mass properties engineering mpe analysis

9.8 Mass Properties Engineering (MPE) Analysis

  • Ensures that the system or system element has the appropriate mass properties to meet the requirements – including weight, the location of center of gravity, inertia about the center of gravity, and product of the inertia about an axis

  • Typically, the initial sizing of the physical system is derived from other requirements, such as minimum payload, maximum operating weight, or human factors restrictions

  • Mass properties estimates are made at all stages of the system life cycle based on the information that is available at the time

MPE analysis/test defines weight, cg location, moments and products of inertia - critical elements of a flight system.


9 8 mpe analysis cont d

9.8 MPE Analysis (cont’d)

  • One trap in MPE is that design managers may believe that their 3‐D modeling tools can be used to estimate the mass properties of the system or system element.

  • This is problematic because not all parts are modeled on the same schedule and most parts are modeled neat, that is, without such items as manufacturing tolerances, paint, insulation, fittings, etc., which can add from 10 to 100% to the system weight.

    • For example, the liquid in piping and tanks can weigh more than the structural tank or metallic piping that contain it

System weight must be trackedduring development along with size, power and reliability (SWP and R).


9 9 safety health hazard analysis

9.9 Safety & Health Hazard Analysis

  • Safety and health hazards are hazards to the well‐being of human operators, maintainers, administrators, or other system users

  • The system safety program begins in the conceptual stage, and continues throughout the system life cycle

The FMECA can be adapted to perform a safety and health hazard analysis to meet FAA/AAR/OSHA requirements.


9 10 sustainment engineering analysis

9.10 Sustainment Engineering Analysis

  • Sustainment engineering helps ensure that a system continues to satisfy its objective over its intended lifetime

  • In that timeframe, system expectations will expand, environments in which the system is operated will change, technology will evolve, and elements of the system may become unsupportable and need to be replaced

  • Sustainment Engineering is an integrated effort designed to address industry needs regarding aging systems and a need to maintain those systems in operation

SE includes end of production, vanishing vendors, substitution of parts/materials and Service Life Extension Programs(SLEP).


9 11 training needs analysis

9.11 Training Needs Analysis

  • Training needs analyses support the development of products and processes for training the users, maintainers, and support personnel of a system

  • Training analysis includes the development of personnel capabilities and proficiencies to accomplish tasks at any point in the system life cycle to the level they are tasked

  • An effective training analysis begins with a thorough understanding of the concept documents and the requirements for the system‐of‐interest

Training System Requirements Analysis => System Approach to Training => Instructional System Development


9 12 usability analysis human systems integration

9.12 Usability Analysis/Human Systems Integration

  • Human Systems Integration is the interdisciplinary technical and management processes for integrating human considerations within and across all system elements over the system life cycle

  • it promotes a “total system” approach that includes humans, technology (i.e., hardware, software), the operational context, and the necessary interfaces between and among the elements to make them all work in harmony

Man Machine Interface (MMI) => Human Machine Interface (HMI) => Human Systems Integration (HSI).


9 12 human systems integration

9.12 Human Systems Integration

  • Human Systems Integration (HSI) is the interdisciplinary technical and management processes for integrating human considerations within and across all system elements over the system life cycle

  • The primary objective of HSI is to ensure that human capabilities and limitations are treated as a critical system element

  • Systems and Design Engineers often lack the expertise or information needed to fully specify and incorporate human capabilities with the capabilities of the hardware and software

HSI experts are often PhD/Psychologists.


9 12 2 1 hsi domains

9.12.2.1 HSI Domains

  • Manpower – Addresses the number and type of personnel in the various occupational specialties required and potentially available to train, operate, maintain, and support the deployed system

  • Personnel – Considers the type of human knowledge, skills, abilities, experience levels, and human aptitudes (i.e., cognitive, physical, and sensory capabilities) required to operate, maintain, and support a system and the means to provide (i.e., recruit and retain) such people

Define the M&P types and quantities with the knowledge, skills and abilities required to operate and maintain the system.


9 12 2 1 hsi domains cont d

9.12.2.1 HSI Domains (cont’d)

  • Training – Encompasses the instruction and resources required to provide personnel with requisite knowledge, skills, and abilities to properly operate, maintain, and support systems

  • Human Factors Engineering (HFE) – Involves an understanding of human capabilities (i.e., cognitive, physical, sensory, and team dynamic) and comprehensive integration of those capabilities into system design beginning with conceptualization and continuing through system disposal

The training development process includes analysis, design, development, integration and evaluation (ADDIE).


9 12 2 1 hsi domains cont d1

9.12.2.1 HSI Domains (cont’d)

  • Environment – In the context of HSI, this domain involves environmental considerations that can affect the ConOps and requirements, particularly human performance

  • Safety – Promotes system design characteristics and procedures to minimize the risk of accidents or mishaps that cause death or injury to operators, maintainers, and support personnel; threaten the operation of the system; or cause cascading failures in other systems

The environmental (EPA) and safety (OSHA) domains are important elements of HSI.


9 12 2 1 hsi domains cont d2

9.12.2.1 HSI Domains (cont’d)

  • Occupational Health – Promotes system design features and procedures that serve to minimize the risk of injury, acute or chronic illness, and disability and to enhance job performance of personnel who operate, maintain, or support the system

  • Habitability – Involves characteristics of system living and working conditions, such as the following: lighting, ventilation, adequate space, vibration, noise, temperature control, availability of medical care, food services, suitable sleeping quarters, sanitation, personal hygiene facilities, and fitness/recreation facilities

Occupational health (OSHA) and habitability are additional important considerations in system design.


9 12 2 1 hsi domains cont d3

9.12.2.1 HSI Domains (cont’d)

  • Survivability – Addresses human‐related characteristics of a system (e.g., life support, body armor, helmets, plating, egress/ejection equipment, air bags, seat belts, electronic shielding, alarms, etc.) that reduce susceptibility of the total system to mission degradation or termination; injury or loss of life; and partial or complete loss of the system or any of its elements

Design for survivability is critical to the Warfighter that operates, maintains and uses the system.


9 12 2 2 key hsi activities tenets

9.12.2.2 Key HSI Activities & Tenets

  • Initiate HSI Early and Effectively

  • Identify Issues and Plan Analysis

  • Document HSI Requirements

  • Make HSI a Factor in Source Selection for Contracted Development Efforts

  • Execute Integrated Technical Processes

  • Conduct Proactive Tradeoffs

  • Conduct HSI Assessments

Human Systems Integration (HIS) is a key element of the System Engineering process.


9 13 value engineering

9.13 Value Engineering

  • Achieve the essential functions at the lowest LCC consistent with required performance, reliability, availability, quality, and safety

  • VE is not a cost reduction activity, but a function oriented method to improve the value of a product

  • Value Engineering uses a systematic process (i.e., formal job plan), VE‐certified facilitators/team leads, and a multidisciplinary team approach to identify and evaluate solutions to complex problems in the life‐cycle of a project, process, or system

Value Engineering (VE) provides the best value product or service as opposed to the least cost for the Government.


So don t let your system fail

So, Don’t Let Your System Fail

Through The Lack Of Good Specialty Engineering

I remember them!


Specialty engineering activities1

Specialty Engineering Activities

9 Specialty Engineering Activities

9.1 Design for Acquisition Logistics – Integrated Logistics Support

9.2 Cost‐Effectiveness Analysis

9.3 Electromagnetic Compatibility Analysis

9.4 Environmental Impact Analysis

9.5 Interoperability Analysis

9.6 Life‐Cycle Cost Analysis

9.7 Manufacturing and Producibility Analysis

9.8 Mass Properties Engineering Analysis

9.9 Safety & Health Hazard Analysis

9.10 Sustainment Engineering Analysis

9.11 Training Needs Analysis

9.12 Usability Analysis/Human Systems Integration

9.13 Value Engineering

9.14 References

QUESTIONS

COMMENTS

Listed alphabetically – not by importance


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