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Invertebrates III and Vertebrates. Phylum: Echinodermata. Deuterostomes radial and indeterminate cleavage Enterocoelous anus from blastopore. Phylum: Echinodermata. Secondary Radial Symmetry Water vascular system Ambulacral groove Madreporite All marine. Water Vascular System.

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Invertebrates III and Vertebrates

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Invertebrates iii and vertebrates

Invertebrates III and Vertebrates

Phylum echinodermata

Phylum: Echinodermata

  • Deuterostomes

    • radial and indeterminate cleavage

    • Enterocoelous

    • anus from blastopore

Phylum echinodermata1

Phylum: Echinodermata

  • Secondary Radial Symmetry

  • Water vascular system

    • Ambulacral groove

    • Madreporite

  • All marine

Water vascular system

Water Vascular System

  • Madreporite

  • Stone Canal

  • Ring Canal

  • Radial Canal

  • Lateral Canal

  • Ampulla

  • Tube Feet



  • Class: Asteroidea (Seastars)

  • Class: Opiuroidea (Brittlestars)

  • Class: Echinoidea (Sea Urchins, Sand Dollars)

  • Class: Crinoidea (Sea Lilies)

  • Class: Holothuroidea (Sea Cucumbers)

Class asteroidea

Class: Asteroidea

  • Five arms radiating from a central disc

  • Open ambulacral groove

  • Madreporite on the aboral side

  • Contain pedicellariae or papulae

Class ophiuroidea

Class: Ophiuroidea

  • Five thin arms radiating from a central disc

  • Closed ambulacral grooves

  • Madreporite on the oral side

  • No suckers on tube feet, pedicellariae or papulae

Class echinoidea

Class: Echinoidea

  • No arms but have five rows of tube feets

  • Contain spines

  • Closed ambulacral grooves

  • Madreporite on the aboral side

  • Contain pedicellariae or papulae

  • Aristotle’s lantern

Class crinoidea

Class: Crinoidea

  • Attached to substrate with many branched arms

  • Open ambulacral grooves

  • No Madreporite

  • No pedicellariae or papulae

Class holothuroidea

Class: Holothuroidea

  • Soft bodied

  • Ambulacral areas with tube feet

  • Internal Madreporite

  • No pedicellariae or papulae

Phylum chordata

Phylum: Chordata

  • Deuterostomes

    • radial and indeterminate cleavage

    • Enterocoelous

    • anus from blastopore

  • Bilateral Symmetry

  • Both invertebrates and vertebrates

    • Contain four anatomical features

Phylum chordata1

Phylum: Chordata

  • Notochord

  • Dorsal, Hollow Nerve Cord

  • Pharyngeal Slits

  • Muscular, Postanal Tail

Subphylum urochordata

SubPhylum: Urochordata

  • Tunicates

  • Sessile

  • Only contains Pharynx with slits as an adult

Subphylum cephalochordata

SubPhylum: Cephalochordata

  • Lancelates

  • Contains all four chordate characters as an adult

  • Closest relative to vertebrates (Amphioxus)

  • Paedogenesis

Subphylum vertebrata

SubPhylum: Vertebrata

  • Backbones

  • Contains all four chordate characters as an adult with modification

  • Neural Crest

    • bones and cartilage of the skull

Vertebrate adaptations

Vertebrate Adaptations

  • Living Endoskeleton

    • better for larger animals

  • Pharynx and Efficient Respiration

    • increased metabolic rate

  • Advanced Nervous System

    • developed system for distance reception

  • Paired Limbs

    • increased movement

Chordate evolution

Chordate Evolution

  • Vertebrae

  • Jaws and two sets of paired appendages

  • Teeth

  • Lungs

  • Legs

  • Amniotic Egg

  • Hair, feathers

Key fish characteristics

Key Fish Characteristics

  • Vertebral Column

  • Jaws and paired appendages

  • Gills

  • Single Circuit blood circulation

Superclass agnatha

Superclass: Agnatha

  • Without Jaws and Most without paired appendages

  • Class: Myxini - Hagfishes (scavengers)

  • Class: Cephalaspidomorphi - Lampreys (parasitic)

Superclass gnathostomata

Superclass: Gnathostomata

  • With jaws

  • Evolved from skeletal supports of the pharyngeal slits

Fossil gnathostomata

Fossil Gnathostomata

  • Placoderms

    • Plate-skinned

  • Acanthodians

    • Probably led to bony fish

Class chondrichthyes

Class: Chondrichthyes

Class chondrichthyes1

Class: Chondrichthyes

  • Placoid Scales (teeth-like)

  • Several rows of teeth

    • (Not embedded in the jaw)

Class chondrichthyes2

Class: Chondrichthyes

  • Spiral valve within intestine

  • Large fatty liver

  • Senses

    • Ampullae of Lorenzini

    • Lateral Line

Class chondrichthyes3

Class: Chondrichthyes

  • Cartilaginous skeleton (not primitive)

    • Subclass: Elasmobranchi

      • Sharks, Skates, Rays

    • Subclass: Holostei

      • Ratfish

Subclass elasmobranchi

Subclass: Elasmobranchi

  • Order: Selachidae

    • Sharks

  • Cartilagenous skeleton

  • Streamlined body

  • 5-7 gill slits

Subclass elasmobranchi1

Subclass: Elasmobranchi

  • Order: Batiformes

    • Skates, Rays

  • Cartilagenous skeleton

  • flattened body

  • 5-6 gill slits on the underside of the body

Subclass holocephali

Subclass: Holocephali

  • Cartilagenous skeleton

  • Lack dermal scales

  • Venomous spine

  • single gill opening with hard covering

Osteichthyes bony fish bony skeleton

Osteichthyes - Bony Fish(Bony Skeleton)

  • Class:Sarcopterygii

    • Lobe-finned Fish

    • Lungfish

  • Class: Actinopterygii

    • Ray-finned Fish



  • Embedded dermal (ctenoid) scales

  • Operculum

  • Swim Bladder

  • Lateral Line



  • Fins

    • Dorsal

    • Pectoral

    • Pelvic

    • Caudal

    • Anal

Class sarcopterygii lobe finned fish subclass coelacanthiomorpha

Class:SarcopterygiiLobe-finned FishSubclass: Coelacanthiomorpha

  • Coelocanth

    • Fleshy pectoral and anal fins which are supported by bones.

Class sarcopterygii lobe finned fish subclass dipnoi

Class:SarcopterygiiLobe-finned FishSubclass: Dipnoi

  • Lungfish

    • Fleshy fins

    • True lungs

Class actinopterygii

Class Actinopterygii

  • Infraclass: Holostei

    • (Primitive fish)

    • Order: Lepisoteriformes - Bowfins

    • Order: Amiiformes - Gars

      • Bowfins

      • Gar

  • They are found in brackish conditions. They can use their swim bladders to obtain extra oxygen.

Class actinopterygii infraclass teleostei

Class ActinopterygiiInfraclass: Teleostei

  • In this infraclass, all of the fish are considered to be the ray-finned fish. They have a movable maxilla and premaxilla and modified muscles that allow them to have a protrusable mouth.

Class actinopterygii infraclass teleostei1

Class ActinopterygiiInfraclass: Teleostei

  • Superorder: Osteoglossomorpha

  • Superorder: Elopomorpha

  • Superorder: Clupeomorpha

  • Superorder: Ostariphysi

  • Superorder: Protacanthopterygii

  • Superorder: Stenopterygii

  • Superorder: Scopelomorpha

  • Superorder: Acanthopterygii

Superorder osteoglossomorpha bony tongued fish

Superorder: OsteoglossomorphaBony Tongued Fish

The Bony tongue is used to bite against.

They are also found in brackish conditions. They can use their swim bladders to obtain extra oxygen.

Superorder elopomorpha eels

Superorder: Elopomorpha Eels

They are snakelike with long bodies. Unlike land snakes, eels are usually scale less, although a few species can be found with tiny scales along their bodies. Over 100 vertebrae form the eel's spine, which makes the animal very flexible.

Superorder clupeomorpha clupeiformes

Superorder: ClupeomorphaClupeiformes

This is the order of ray-finned fish that includes the herring family and the anchovy family. Clupeiformes are physostomes, which means that the gas bladder has a pneumatic duct connecting it to the gut. They typically lack a lateral line.

Superorder ostariphysii

Superorder: Ostariphysii

These fish release an alarm substance and their first few vertebrates are used to pass sound from the swim bladder to the inner ear for acute hearing. They also have a gas bladder.

Superorder protacanthopterygii

Superorder: Protacanthopterygii

These are fish that lack specialization.They are important game fish like Salmon and Trout

Superorder stenopterygii

Superorder: Stenopterygii

Dragonfish are deep water fish. Many deep sea fish are biouminescent

Superorder scopelomorpha

Superorder: Scopelomorpha

  • Lantern fish are deep water fish. Many deep sea fish are bioluminescent. They have large eyes and adipose fins.

Superorder acanthopterygii

Superorder: Acanthopterygii

Ray-finned Fish – they make up of a very diverse group of fish which usually have a Pelvic fin spine present.

Evolution of the tetrapods

Evolution of the Tetrapods

Evolution of the tetrapods1

Evolution of the Tetrapods

Deep sea fish

Deep Sea Fish

Deep sea fish are among the most elusive and unusual looking creatures on Earth.

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