Invertebrates iii and vertebrates
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Invertebrates III and Vertebrates. Phylum: Echinodermata. Deuterostomes radial and indeterminate cleavage Enterocoelous anus from blastopore. Phylum: Echinodermata. Secondary Radial Symmetry Water vascular system Ambulacral groove Madreporite All marine. Water Vascular System.

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Invertebrates III and Vertebrates

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Invertebrates III and Vertebrates


Phylum: Echinodermata

  • Deuterostomes

    • radial and indeterminate cleavage

    • Enterocoelous

    • anus from blastopore


Phylum: Echinodermata

  • Secondary Radial Symmetry

  • Water vascular system

    • Ambulacral groove

    • Madreporite

  • All marine


Water Vascular System

  • Madreporite

  • Stone Canal

  • Ring Canal

  • Radial Canal

  • Lateral Canal

  • Ampulla

  • Tube Feet


Classification

  • Class: Asteroidea (Seastars)

  • Class: Opiuroidea (Brittlestars)

  • Class: Echinoidea (Sea Urchins, Sand Dollars)

  • Class: Crinoidea (Sea Lilies)

  • Class: Holothuroidea (Sea Cucumbers)


Class: Asteroidea

  • Five arms radiating from a central disc

  • Open ambulacral groove

  • Madreporite on the aboral side

  • Contain pedicellariae or papulae


Class: Ophiuroidea

  • Five thin arms radiating from a central disc

  • Closed ambulacral grooves

  • Madreporite on the oral side

  • No suckers on tube feet, pedicellariae or papulae


Class: Echinoidea

  • No arms but have five rows of tube feets

  • Contain spines

  • Closed ambulacral grooves

  • Madreporite on the aboral side

  • Contain pedicellariae or papulae

  • Aristotle’s lantern


Class: Crinoidea

  • Attached to substrate with many branched arms

  • Open ambulacral grooves

  • No Madreporite

  • No pedicellariae or papulae


Class: Holothuroidea

  • Soft bodied

  • Ambulacral areas with tube feet

  • Internal Madreporite

  • No pedicellariae or papulae


Phylum: Chordata

  • Deuterostomes

    • radial and indeterminate cleavage

    • Enterocoelous

    • anus from blastopore

  • Bilateral Symmetry

  • Both invertebrates and vertebrates

    • Contain four anatomical features


Phylum: Chordata

  • Notochord

  • Dorsal, Hollow Nerve Cord

  • Pharyngeal Slits

  • Muscular, Postanal Tail


SubPhylum: Urochordata

  • Tunicates

  • Sessile

  • Only contains Pharynx with slits as an adult


SubPhylum: Cephalochordata

  • Lancelates

  • Contains all four chordate characters as an adult

  • Closest relative to vertebrates (Amphioxus)

  • Paedogenesis


SubPhylum: Vertebrata

  • Backbones

  • Contains all four chordate characters as an adult with modification

  • Neural Crest

    • bones and cartilage of the skull


Vertebrate Adaptations

  • Living Endoskeleton

    • better for larger animals

  • Pharynx and Efficient Respiration

    • increased metabolic rate

  • Advanced Nervous System

    • developed system for distance reception

  • Paired Limbs

    • increased movement


Chordate Evolution

  • Vertebrae

  • Jaws and two sets of paired appendages

  • Teeth

  • Lungs

  • Legs

  • Amniotic Egg

  • Hair, feathers


Key Fish Characteristics

  • Vertebral Column

  • Jaws and paired appendages

  • Gills

  • Single Circuit blood circulation


Superclass: Agnatha

  • Without Jaws and Most without paired appendages

  • Class: Myxini - Hagfishes (scavengers)

  • Class: Cephalaspidomorphi - Lampreys (parasitic)


Superclass: Gnathostomata

  • With jaws

  • Evolved from skeletal supports of the pharyngeal slits


Fossil Gnathostomata

  • Placoderms

    • Plate-skinned

  • Acanthodians

    • Probably led to bony fish


Class: Chondrichthyes


Class: Chondrichthyes

  • Placoid Scales (teeth-like)

  • Several rows of teeth

    • (Not embedded in the jaw)


Class: Chondrichthyes

  • Spiral valve within intestine

  • Large fatty liver

  • Senses

    • Ampullae of Lorenzini

    • Lateral Line


Class: Chondrichthyes

  • Cartilaginous skeleton (not primitive)

    • Subclass: Elasmobranchi

      • Sharks, Skates, Rays

    • Subclass: Holostei

      • Ratfish


Subclass: Elasmobranchi

  • Order: Selachidae

    • Sharks

  • Cartilagenous skeleton

  • Streamlined body

  • 5-7 gill slits


Subclass: Elasmobranchi

  • Order: Batiformes

    • Skates, Rays

  • Cartilagenous skeleton

  • flattened body

  • 5-6 gill slits on the underside of the body


Subclass: Holocephali

  • Cartilagenous skeleton

  • Lack dermal scales

  • Venomous spine

  • single gill opening with hard covering


Osteichthyes - Bony Fish(Bony Skeleton)

  • Class:Sarcopterygii

    • Lobe-finned Fish

    • Lungfish

  • Class: Actinopterygii

    • Ray-finned Fish


Osteichthyes

  • Embedded dermal (ctenoid) scales

  • Operculum

  • Swim Bladder

  • Lateral Line


Osteichthyes

  • Fins

    • Dorsal

    • Pectoral

    • Pelvic

    • Caudal

    • Anal


Class:SarcopterygiiLobe-finned FishSubclass: Coelacanthiomorpha

  • Coelocanth

    • Fleshy pectoral and anal fins which are supported by bones.


Class:SarcopterygiiLobe-finned FishSubclass: Dipnoi

  • Lungfish

    • Fleshy fins

    • True lungs


Class Actinopterygii

  • Infraclass: Holostei

    • (Primitive fish)

    • Order: Lepisoteriformes - Bowfins

    • Order: Amiiformes - Gars

      • Bowfins

      • Gar

  • They are found in brackish conditions. They can use their swim bladders to obtain extra oxygen.


Class ActinopterygiiInfraclass: Teleostei

  • In this infraclass, all of the fish are considered to be the ray-finned fish. They have a movable maxilla and premaxilla and modified muscles that allow them to have a protrusable mouth.


Class ActinopterygiiInfraclass: Teleostei

  • Superorder: Osteoglossomorpha

  • Superorder: Elopomorpha

  • Superorder: Clupeomorpha

  • Superorder: Ostariphysi

  • Superorder: Protacanthopterygii

  • Superorder: Stenopterygii

  • Superorder: Scopelomorpha

  • Superorder: Acanthopterygii


Superorder: OsteoglossomorphaBony Tongued Fish

The Bony tongue is used to bite against.

They are also found in brackish conditions. They can use their swim bladders to obtain extra oxygen.


Superorder: Elopomorpha Eels

They are snakelike with long bodies. Unlike land snakes, eels are usually scale less, although a few species can be found with tiny scales along their bodies. Over 100 vertebrae form the eel's spine, which makes the animal very flexible.


Superorder: ClupeomorphaClupeiformes

This is the order of ray-finned fish that includes the herring family and the anchovy family. Clupeiformes are physostomes, which means that the gas bladder has a pneumatic duct connecting it to the gut. They typically lack a lateral line.


Superorder: Ostariphysii

These fish release an alarm substance and their first few vertebrates are used to pass sound from the swim bladder to the inner ear for acute hearing. They also have a gas bladder.


Superorder: Protacanthopterygii

These are fish that lack specialization.They are important game fish like Salmon and Trout


Superorder: Stenopterygii

Dragonfish are deep water fish. Many deep sea fish are biouminescent


Superorder: Scopelomorpha

  • Lantern fish are deep water fish. Many deep sea fish are bioluminescent. They have large eyes and adipose fins.


Superorder: Acanthopterygii

Ray-finned Fish – they make up of a very diverse group of fish which usually have a Pelvic fin spine present.


Evolution of the Tetrapods


Evolution of the Tetrapods


Deep Sea Fish

Deep sea fish are among the most elusive and unusual looking creatures on Earth.


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