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EMERGY & ENERGY SYSTEMS. Session 6 Short Course for ECO Interns, EPA and Partners. Evaluating Tangibles. Natural systems Purchased or processed materials . Natural Systems. Generic Folio 3 Pg. 3.

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Emergy energy systems

EMERGY & ENERGY SYSTEMS

Session 6

Short Course for ECO Interns, EPA and Partners


Evaluating tangibles

Evaluating Tangibles

  • Natural systems

  • Purchased or processed materials


Natural systems

Natural Systems

  • Generic

    • Folio 3

    • Pg. 3


Natural systems1

Table 16. Annual Emergy supporting a Mangrove Nursery System of Ecuador. 119,500 Hectares. (Odum and Arding 1991)

Note Item Raw Units Emergy/unit Solar EM$

J,g,$ Sej/unit EMERGY 1989 US

E18 sej/yr E6 em$/yr

1 Solar energy 4.4 E18 J 1 4.44 2.22

2 Wind energy 4.4 E14 J 623 0.27 0.14

3 Mangrove transpiration 4.4 E15 J 41068 179.06 89.53

4 Rain chemical potential 5.2 E15 J 15444 80.31 40.15

5 Tides 4.2 E15 J 23564 99.91 49.96

6 Total solids from sewer 5.8 E10 J 62400 0.00 0.00

7 Total N from sewers 4.2 E8 g 9.00 E8 0.38 0.19

8 Total P from sewers 5.15 E7 g 8.10 E9 0.42 0.21

9 Biomass growth 1.9 E16 J 14684 279.00 139.50

10 Litterfall 2.1 E16 J 13285 279.00 139.49

Natural Systems

  • Wetlands

    • Forested

    • Estuary

    • Folio3

    • Pg 59


Natural systems2

Natural Systems

Table19. Emergy flows supporting subtropical herbaceous wetland, Florida. (Bardi and Brown, 2001)

Note Item Data Units Emergy/unit Solar Emergy

(sej/unit) E15 sej/ha*yr-1

Energy Sources

1 Sun 4.19 E13 J/ha/yr 1 0.04

2 Wind 3.15 E9 J/ha/yr 1496 0.005

3 Rain, chemical potential 6.42 E10 J/ha/yr 18199 1.17

4 Run-in, chemical potential 2.25 E10 J/ha/yr 51867 1.17

5 Geologic input 2.97 E6 g/ha/yr 1.00 E9 2.97

Functions (Env. Services)

6 Transpiration (water use ) 2.67 E10 J/ha/yr 26928 0.72

7 GPP 8.54 E11 J/ha/yr 4319 3.69

8 Infiltration 1.82 E10 J/ha/yr 26928 0.49

Structure (Natural Capital)

9 Live Biomass 1.00 E11 J/ha 73426 7.38

10 Peat 3.77 E12 J/ha 183870 693.41

11 Water 3.94 E10 J/ha 26928 1.06

12 Basin Structure 6.10 E6 J/ha 1.0 E12 6209.30

  • Wetlands

    • Marsh

    • Freshwater

    • Folio3

    • Pg 65


Natural systems3

Natural Systems

Table14. Annual emergy supporting Southern Mixed Hardwood Forest Ecosystem (Florida) (Orrell, 1998)

Note Storage or Flow Raw Units Emergy/unit Solar Emergy

J/ha/yr sej/unit sej/ha*yr-1

Sources

1 Sun 4.2 E13 1 4.2 E13

2 Wind 2.5 E9 1,496 3.8 E12

3 Rain, physical 2.2 E8 10,488 2.3 E12

4 Rain, chemical potential 6.4 E10 18,199 1.2 E15

5 Run-in, chemical potential 0 48,459 0

6 Water use (Transpiration) 2.6 E10 18,199 4.7 E14

Storages (unit/ha)

7 Biomass 2.2 E12 5,504 1.2 E16

8 Soil moisture 2.5 E8 41,000 1.0 E13

9 Phosphorus 3.2 E7 4.0 E7 1.3 E15

10 Soil organic matter 9.0 E12 11,360 1.0 E17

11 Tree species richness 20 species 1.1 E19 sej/spec. 2.2 E20

Flows

12 Net production 3.1 E11 1,543 4.7 E14

13 Respiration 4.7 E11 1,021 4.7 E14

14 Gross production 7.8 E11 615 4.7 E14

  • Wetlands

  • Forests

    • Folio 3,

    • Pg 53


Natural systems4

Natural Systems

Table 22. Empower of Lake Okeechobee (From Odum, 2000)

Note Item, units Units/yr Emergy/unit Empower Emvalue#

sej/unit E18 sej/yr E6 Em$/yr

Sources

1 Sun, J 1.22 E19 1 12.2 12.2

2 Rain, g 2.29 E15 9 E4 206 206

3 Tributary water, g 2.61 E15 5.6 E5 1484 1484

4 Tributary organ., J 1.74 E15 7.13 E5 1242 1242

5 Evaporation, g 2.64 E15 6.57 E5 1734 1734

6 Marsh product., J 7.28 E16 4026 293 293

7 Water circulation, J 3.9 E10 1.84 E7 0.7 0.7

8 Open water emergy, sej/yr —— 1412 1412

9 Lake net prod, J 4.36 E16 3.21 E4 1412 1412

10 Phos. in streams, g 3.45 E8 7.2 E10 25 25

11 Phos., marsh cycle, g 3.29 E9 7.5 E10 247 247

12 Phos. sedim. cycle, g 9.67 E9 1.48 E11 1430 1430

13 Phos. plankt. cycle, g 6.06 E9 1.48 E11 900 900

14 Total lake empower — — 2027 2027

15 Outflow, ag canals, g 0.44 E15 6.57 E5 289 289

16 Outflow reg. canals, g 2.07 E15 6.57 E5 1360 1360

17 Net org. sediment, J 4.62 E16 3.21 E4 1485 1485

18 Consumer. prod., J 1.09 E16 1.56 E5 1709 1709

19 Base fish prod, J 1.71 E14 1.00 E7 1709 1709

20 Game fish prod, J 8.5 E12 2.0 E8 1709 1709

  • Wetlands

  • Forests

  • Lakes

    • Folio 3

    • Pg 77


Processed material

Processed Material

Fuel

Electricity

Materials

Goods

Water

Resources

Geology

  • Generic

Services

Materials

Fauna

Sun

Wind

Harvest &

Finishing

Production

Market

Environmental

Production


Processed material1

Processed Material

Table 5. Emergy evaluation of boreal spruce (Picea aibes) and pine (Pinus silvestris) silvicultural production and timber extraction under 80 year rotation schedules in southern Sweden. (Doherty, 1995)

Resource Solar Solar emergy

Note Item units/ha/yr emergy flow

(J,g,$) per unit E+12 sej/ha*yr-1

I Environmental sources:

1. Sunlight 2.57 E13 J 1 25.7

2. Wind, kinetic 8.73 E10 J 1500 130.9

3. Evapotranspired rain 1.95 E10 J 18200 355.1

F1 Silviculture:

4. Motor fuel 5.59 E7 J 47900 2.7

5. Tractors, trucks 66 g 6.70 E9 0.4

6. Human services 18.70 $ 1.50 E12 28.1

Y1 Above ground production 7.84 E10 J ST1 386.3

(3.82 tons/ha/yr)

F2 Harvesting:

7. Motor fuel 5.97 E8 J 47900 28.6

8. Feller, forwarder 188 g 6.70 E9 1.3

9. Human services 101.26 $ 1.50 E12 151.9

10. Capital investment 14.44 $ 1.50 E12 21.7

Y2 Harvested biomass 5.85 E10 J ST2 589.7

(2.85 tons/ha/yr)

Summary of measurements:

Solar Transformity:

ST1 Above ground production 4928 sej/J

ST2 Harvested biomass 10,083 sej/J

  • Forest to wood products

    • Folio 3

    • Pg 16


Processed material2

Processed Material

Emergy Evaluation of Phosphorous Acid, 35% P2O5

________________________________________________

NoteItemInputs Solar Emergy

E12 sej

________________________________________________

1Water1.40 E8 J 11

2Phosphate rock7.49 E5 g P4,907

3Electricity1.89 E8 J 51

4Labor1.05 E6 J 43

5H2SO4 (94%)8.85 E5 g 136

Total emergy ---5,149

________________________________________________

6Total yield 9.08 E5 g

Total phosphorus in yield3.96 E5 g P

7Emergy per gram, P2O55.67 E9 sej/g

Emergy per gram, phosphorus1.30 E10 sej/g P

________________________________________________

  • Forest to wood products

  • Compounds and elements to reagents

    • Folio 4

    • Pg 31


Processed material3

Processed Material

Table 16

Annual Emergy Used to Produce Milk, per cow per year

___________________________________________________________

Inputs Solar Emergy

NoteItemcow-1 yr-1 E13 sej/cow/yr

____________________________________________________________

1Sun1.48 E14 J3

2Evapotranspiration1.51 E11 J418

3Net topsoil loss7.69 E9 J95

4Fuel1.75 E10 J 194

5Electricity5.02 E9 J135

6Potash1.49 E5 g K28

7Lime9.28 E5 g156

8Pesticides2.33 E3 g6

9Phosphate3.35 E4 g P124

10Nitrogen5.07 E4 g N205

11Labor1.28 E8 J57

12Services2.19 E3 $1177

13Total emergy---2568

____________________________________________________________

14Total yield, dry weight7.63 E5 g

15Total yield, energy1.98 E10 J

16Emergy per mass3.37 E10 sej/g

17Transformity1.29 E6 sej/J

18Empower density1.90 E18 sej/ha/yr feed lot

____________________________________________________________

  • Forest to wood products

  • Compounds and elements to reagents

  • Agriculture

    • Folio 4

    • Pg 23


Summary

Summary

  • Regional evaluations made up of a lot of smaller evaluations

  • Most components are tangible and documented by reputable agencies


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