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What is Life?. What will happen if organisms reproduce, imperfectly, and the variation makes a difference in survival and reproduction of the organism?.

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What will happen if organisms reproduce, imperfectly, and the variation makes a difference in survival and reproduction of the organism?


School children modeled this by drawing copies of a drawing of animal. Then most of these copies were eliminated (disaster or climate change), and they drew copies of the surviving drawings, for 6 successive generations. These drawings were animated to produce this video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N8X-j0dbZWs

What will happen if organisms reproduce, imperfectly, and the variation makes a difference in survival and reproduction of the organism?


Evolution is an inevitable consequence of life on earth
Evolution is an inevitable consequence of life on Earth of animal. Then most of these copies were eliminated (disaster or climate change), and they drew copies of the surviving drawings, for 6 successive generations. These drawings were animated to produce this video:

  • Heritable variation – mutation, recombination.

  • Competition for limited resources.

  • Natural selection.

  • Time – many generations.

  • Long-term environmental changes.


Hutton s unconformity
Hutton’s Unconformity of animal. Then most of these copies were eliminated (disaster or climate change), and they drew copies of the surviving drawings, for 6 successive generations. These drawings were animated to produce this video:

Red sandstone (horizontal)

Grey shale (vertical)

“… no vestige of a beginning, no prospect of an end.” –James Hutton

(photo: Anne Burgess)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Siccar_Point.jpg


Homology of mammalian limbs
Homology of Mammalian Limbs of animal. Then most of these copies were eliminated (disaster or climate change), and they drew copies of the surviving drawings, for 6 successive generations. These drawings were animated to produce this video:

  • Buffon (1707-1788) noted the homologous structure of mammal limbs and suggested descent from a common ancestor.

  • Common structures in four very different mammals:

    • humerus (gray)

    • radius (orange)

    • ulna (beige)

    • carpals (yellow)

    • phalanges (brown)

Campbell & Reece, Fig. 22.14


Sean Carroll - http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/evolution/lectures.html


Sean Carroll - http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/evolution/lectures.html


What the fossil record shows
What the fossil record shows http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/evolution/lectures.html

Foraminiferans – www.don-lindsay-archive.org/creation/foram_work.gif


Evolution of horses
Evolution of Horses http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/evolution/lectures.html


Horsetoes
Horsetoes! http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/evolution/lectures.html


Darwin s original insights
Darwin's Original Insights http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/evolution/lectures.html

  • Descent with modification from a common ancestor – a tree describes genealogy of life

  • Natural selection – the mechanism of evolution


Darwin s tree illustrations
Darwin's Tree Illustrations http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/evolution/lectures.html

1859 Origin of Species – only figure

1837 notebook page


Natural selection and time
Natural Selection and Time http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/evolution/lectures.html


How often does a black coat mutation arise
How often does a black coat mutation arise? http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/evolution/lectures.html

Depends on:


How often can we expect a black rock pocket mouse to arise by mutation
How often can we expect a black rock pocket mouse to arise by mutation?

Mutation rate for black MCIR allele = 2 x 10-8


Evolutionary hypotheses are testable and falsifiable
Evolutionary hypotheses are testable and falsifiable by mutation?

  • Discovery and characterization of new transitional fossils

  • DNA sequence comparisons

  • Radiometric and isotopic dating

  • Geological record

  • Astrophysics



Modern biology is evolutionary biology
Modern Biology Is Evolutionary Biology by mutation?

  • “Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution.”

    • Theodosius Dobzhansky

  • “The alternative to thinking in evolutionary terms is not to think at all.”

    • Peter Medawar, Nobel Laureate, 1960


Useful websites
Useful Websites by mutation?

  • National Academy of Sciences: Teaching About Evolution and the Nature of Science

    • A good overview of evolution and science.

  • UC Museum of Paleontology

    • Info on the theory and history of evolution

  • Talk Origins Archive

    • Info on evolution and creationism

  • Talk Origins Archive FAQ

    • A good entry point to the Talk Origins Archive


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