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Chapter 18. Practical Applications of Immunology. Vaccine History. Variolation: Inoculation of smallpox into skin (18 th century) Vaccination: Inoculation of cowpox into skin Herd immunity results when most of a population is immune to a disease.

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Chapter 18

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Chapter 18 l.jpg

Chapter 18

Practical Applications of Immunology


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Vaccine History

  • Variolation: Inoculation of smallpox into skin (18th century)

  • Vaccination: Inoculation of cowpox into skin

  • Herd immunity results when most of a population is immune to a disease.


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Principal Vaccines Used in the United States to Prevent Bacterial Diseases in Humans

  • DtaP

    • Diphtheria: Purified diphtheria toxoid

    • Pertussis: Acellular fragments of B. pertussis

    • Tetanus: Purified tetanus toxoid

  • Meningococcal meningitis: Purified polysaccharide from N. meningitidis

  • Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis: Polysaccharides conjugated with protein

  • Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: S. pneumoniae antigens conjugated with protein


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Principal Vaccines Used in the United States to Prevent Viral Diseases in Humans

  • Smallpox: Live vaccinia virus

  • Poliomyelitis: Inactivated virus

  • Rabies: Inactivated virus

  • Hepatitis A: Inactivated virus

  • Influenza: Inactivated or attenuated virus

  • Measles: Attenuated virus

  • Mumps: Attenuated virus

  • Rubella: Attenuated virus

  • Chickenpox: Attenuated virus

  • Hepatitis B: Antigenic fragments (recombinant vaccine)


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Precipitation Reactions

  • Involve soluble antigens with antibodies

Figure 18.3


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Agglutination Reactions

  • Involve particulate antigens and antibodies

  • Antigens may be:

  • On a cell (direct agglutination)

  • Attached to latex spheres (indirect or passive agglutination)

Figure 18.4


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Antibody Titer

  • Is the concentration of antibodies against a particular antigen

Figure 18.5


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Hemagglutination

  • Hemagglutination involves agglutination of RBCs.

  • Viral hemagglutination inhibition tests for antibodies by the antibodies' ability to prevent viruses from agglutinating RBCs.

Figure 18.7


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Neutralization Reactions

  • Eliminate the harmful effect of a virus or exotoxin

Figure 18.8b


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Complement Fixation

Figure 18.9.1


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Complement Fixation

Figure 18.9.2


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Fluorescent Antibody Techniques (Direct)

Figure 18.10a


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Fluorescent Antibody Techniques (Indirect)

Figure 18.10b


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Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay(Direct ELISA)

Figure 18.12a


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Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (Indirect ELISA)

Figure 18.12b


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Serological Tests

Figure 18.13


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Serological Tests

  • Direct tests detect antigens (from patient sample)

  • Indirect tests detect antibodies (in patient's serum)


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Serological Tests

  • Agglutination: Particulate antigens

  • Hemagglutination: Agglutination of RBCs

  • Precipitation: Soluble antigens

  • Fluorescent-antibody technique: Antibodies linked to fluorescent dye

  • Complement fixation: RBCs are indicator

  • Neutralization: Inactivates toxin or virus

  • ELISA: Peroxidase enzyme is the indicator


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