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Chapter 18. Practical Applications of Immunology. Vaccine History. Variolation: Inoculation of smallpox into skin (18 th century) Vaccination: Inoculation of cowpox into skin Herd immunity results when most of a population is immune to a disease.

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chapter 18

Chapter 18

Practical Applications of Immunology

vaccine history
Vaccine History
  • Variolation: Inoculation of smallpox into skin (18th century)
  • Vaccination: Inoculation of cowpox into skin
  • Herd immunity results when most of a population is immune to a disease.
principal vaccines used in the united states to prevent bacterial diseases in humans
Principal Vaccines Used in the United States to Prevent Bacterial Diseases in Humans
  • DtaP
    • Diphtheria: Purified diphtheria toxoid
    • Pertussis: Acellular fragments of B. pertussis
    • Tetanus: Purified tetanus toxoid
  • Meningococcal meningitis: Purified polysaccharide from N. meningitidis
  • Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis: Polysaccharides conjugated with protein
  • Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: S. pneumoniae antigens conjugated with protein
principal vaccines used in the united states to prevent viral diseases in humans
Principal Vaccines Used in the United States to Prevent Viral Diseases in Humans
  • Smallpox: Live vaccinia virus
  • Poliomyelitis: Inactivated virus
  • Rabies: Inactivated virus
  • Hepatitis A: Inactivated virus
  • Influenza: Inactivated or attenuated virus
  • Measles: Attenuated virus
  • Mumps: Attenuated virus
  • Rubella: Attenuated virus
  • Chickenpox: Attenuated virus
  • Hepatitis B: Antigenic fragments (recombinant vaccine)
precipitation reactions
Precipitation Reactions
  • Involve soluble antigens with antibodies

Figure 18.3

agglutination reactions
Agglutination Reactions
  • Involve particulate antigens and antibodies
  • Antigens may be:
  • On a cell (direct agglutination)
  • Attached to latex spheres (indirect or passive agglutination)

Figure 18.4

antibody titer
Antibody Titer
  • Is the concentration of antibodies against a particular antigen

Figure 18.5

hemagglutination
Hemagglutination
  • Hemagglutination involves agglutination of RBCs.
  • Viral hemagglutination inhibition tests for antibodies by the antibodies\' ability to prevent viruses from agglutinating RBCs.

Figure 18.7

neutralization reactions
Neutralization Reactions
  • Eliminate the harmful effect of a virus or exotoxin

Figure 18.8b

complement fixation
Complement Fixation

Figure 18.9.1

complement fixation11
Complement Fixation

Figure 18.9.2

serological tests
Serological Tests

Figure 18.13

serological tests17
Serological Tests
  • Direct tests detect antigens (from patient sample)
  • Indirect tests detect antibodies (in patient\'s serum)
serological tests18
Serological Tests
  • Agglutination: Particulate antigens
  • Hemagglutination: Agglutination of RBCs
  • Precipitation: Soluble antigens
  • Fluorescent-antibody technique: Antibodies linked to fluorescent dye
  • Complement fixation: RBCs are indicator
  • Neutralization: Inactivates toxin or virus
  • ELISA: Peroxidase enzyme is the indicator
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