More on the First Americans - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

More on the first americans
1 / 25

  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

More on the First Americans. Jargon, Themes and Early European Encounters. Jargon. Paleolithic Period : from beginnings of human life through ~10,000 BCE when people were nomads.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.

Download Presentation

More on the First Americans

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript

More on the first americans

More on the First Americans

Jargon, Themes and Early European Encounters

More on the first americans


  • Paleolithic Period: from beginnings of human life through ~10,000 BCE when people were nomads.

  • Nomad: person who belongs to a group of people who move from place to place seasonally in search of water and food.

  • Neolithic Revolution: Beginning about 10,000 BCE when they started to cultivate crops and domesticate animals.

More on the first americans

Jargon, 2

  • Social Class:a group of people within a society who share the same social, political, and economic status.

    • Class usually determined by work performed like farmer, craftsman, priest, and warrior

  • Civilization: a society having a high level of culture and social organization including organized government, job specialization, and an organized belief system.

More on the first americans

Jargon, 3

  • Council of Elders:

    • usually ran the villages

    • Composed of the heads of the village’s various families

    • Some villages may have had a chief elder as a single leader.

    • In times of scarce resources, warfare increased between villages.

    • Some men gained stature as great warriors during time of warfare.

More on the first americans

Neolithic Revolution

  • Changed the way humans lived.

  • Agriculture allowed permanent settlements, social classes, and new technologies.

  • New technologies

    • Simple calendars to track planting and harvesting.

    • Simple metal tools like plows.

      • May have used animals to pull the plows.

    • Metal weapons.

More on the first americans

Neolithic Revolution, 2

  • Took place in places besides Western Hemisphere

  • Some of these early groups settled in the fertile valleys of the Nile, Tigris-Euphrates, Yellow, and Indus Rivers.

    • Rise of great civilizations in Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, and India.

More on the first americans

In North America

  • First Americans of the North

    • North of Rio Grande

    • Less complex and coercive societies

    • Lacked occupational diversity, social hierarchy, and strong state institutions

    • Most were self-governing kinship groups based on lineage

More on the first americans


  • ~100 CE, present-day Ohio

  • Spread influence from Louisiana to Wisconsin

  • Organized in large villages

  • Extensive trade networks and domesticated plants

    • Obsidian from Rocky Mountains

    • Copper from Great Lakes

    • Pottery and marine shells from Gulf of Mexico

More on the first americans

  • Built large burial mounds.

  • Artisans make ornaments to bury with the dead.

This map shows the Hopewell mounds and earthworks around Chillicothe Ohio.

More on the first americans

In the Southwest

  • ~ 600 CE Hohokam and Mogollon cultures

    • Hohokam used irrigation to grow crops

    • Worshiped their gods on platform mounds

    • By 1000, lived in elaborate multi-room stone structures called pueblos

  • ~ 900 CE Anasazi

    • Master architects

    • Built residential-ceremonial villages in steep cliffs

      • Chaco Canyon houses 1,000 people

More on the first americans

Chaco Canyon

More on the first americans

Cliff Palace at Mesa Verde National Park (New Mexico)

More on the first americans

In the Southwest, 2

  • These societies collapsed ~ 1150

    • Drought ???

    • Invasion ???

    • Illness ???

  • Descendents include Acomas, Zunis, Hopis, and Navajos

More on the first americans


  • ~800, Mississippi River Valley

  • Last large-scale culture to emerge north of the Rio Grande

  • ~1150, Cahokia was largest city

    • Near present-day St. Louis

    • Population of 15,000 – 20,000

    • Temple mounds as large as great Egyptian pyramids

  • Tributes paid by peasants supported the privileged class of nobles and priests

More on the first americans

Mississippian, 2

  • ~1350

  • Decline due to overpopulation, urban disease, and warfare

More on the first americans


  • Included Algonquian-speaking peoples

  • Lived further north and to the east

  • Included modern-day Virginia

  • Farming became the work of women

    • Used flint hoes

    • Corn, squash, and beans

  • Men hunted and fished

  • Matrilineal inheritance system developed among many due to importance of farming.

More on the first americans

Mediterranean Crossroads

  • African, Asian, and European peoples interacted in the Mediterranean region

  • West African gold enriched Turkish sultans.

  • European guns strengthened North African armies.

  • Indian spices found their way to Italian kitchens.

More on the first americans

Religion and Politics

  • Closely intertwined in Mediterranean commerce.

  • From 7th to 14th centuries, Islam spread to Southeast Asia, West Africa, and much of Southern Europe.

  • Roman Catholic rulers introduced Christianity to central and northern Europe.

  • Frequent religious cooperation to secure commercial ties and fight piracy.

More on the first americans


  • Some Africans and Native Americans were matrilineal -- children traced descent through mother’s bloodline.

  • In many agricultural societies, women as well as men farmed.

    • In some, women did most of the field cultivation.

  • Europe divided tasks by gender

    • i.e., men were weavers but women were spinners.

  • Primogeniture in Europe

More on the first americans

European Encounters

  • Explorers financed by King Ferdinand of Aragon and Queen Isabella of Castile

  • Columbus

    • October 12, 1492, disembarked on an island in the present-day Bahamas

    • Native inhabitants were the Taino, Arawak, and Carib

    • Future expeditions began colonization of West Indies

More on the first americans

European Encounters,2

  • Hernan Cortes and the Aztecs

  • Pizarro and the Incas

  • Desoto explored much of southeastern US

  • Spanish invasion changed life forever in the Americas

    • Disease and warfare wiped out virtually all of the Native Americans of Hispanola (300,000)

    • Conquistadors

More on the first americans


  • Between 1500 and 1650, ~350,000 Spaniards migrated to Mesoamerica and Western South America

    • 75% were men who took Indian wives

    • Mestizos = mixed race population

    • Elaborate race-based caste system emerged

      • 3.2 million Spaniards, 5.5 million Mestizos, 1 million African slaves and 7.5 million Native Americans

    • Surviving Native Americans lost most of their cultural identity

More on the first americans

Columbian Exchange

  • Profoundly impacted Americas, Europe, and Africa

  • Changed natural environment through new flora, fauna, minerals, and diseases

  • Native Americans catastrophic population losses

  • European nations economic profit from precious metals

  • New class of peoples (mestizos)

  • And ultimately, African slaves



  • Kokopelli:

  • The Enduring Vision by Boyer, et al

  • College Board Teacher Resources

  • (picture)

  • (picture)

  • (picture)

  • The American Vision by Appleby, et al (picture)

  • Login