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Reported speech ( he said that ). a cura della prof.ssa Domitilla Gerini. “I’m feeling ill.”. Look at this situation:. If you want to tell somebody what sarah said there are two ways of doing this :. you can repeat Sarah’s words (direct speech) Sarah said, “I’m feeling ill”.

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Reported speech he said that

Reportedspeech

(hesaidthat)

a cura della prof.ssa Domitilla Gerini


Look at this situation

“I’m feeling ill.”

Look at this situation:


If you want to tell somebody what sarah said there are two ways of doing this

Ifyouwanttotellsomebodywhatsarahsaidthere are twowaysofdoingthis:

you can repeat Sarah’s words (direct speech)

Sarah said, “I’m feeling ill”

you can use reported speech:

Sarah said that she was feeling ill.


Important rules

COMPARE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES:

Sarah said, “Iam feeling ill ”(direct)

Sarah said that shewas feeling ill (reported)

when we report what someone else said:

the personal pronoun changes

we are usually reporting at a later time so we use the reporting verb (say, tell …) in the past tense

and we normally change the tense used by the original speaker, it moves one tense back (see table on the following slide)

IMPORTANT RULES


Tense changes in reported speech 1

Tensechanges in reportedspeech - 1


Tense changes in reported speech 2

Tensechanges in reportedspeech - 2


A cura della prof ssa domitilla gerini

Theseverbsdo notchangewhenthey are reported at a

latertime:

  • Could

  • Would

  • Might

  • Oughtto

  • Usedto

  • and verbs in the pastperfect

    See the followingtableforexamples

… but…


Examples verbs that do not change

Examples – verbsthat do notchange


Must or had to

Whenwe report must, we can useeithermust or hadto

in the reportedspeech, buthadtois more common

Example:

Kate: I mustbuy some fruit” Kate saidshemust/hadtobuy some fruit

BUT BE CAREFUL!

Weusemust, nothadto, whenwe report :

  • a negative sentence

    Ex.: Paul “Youmustn’t tell Sally our secret” Paul saidwemustn’t tell Sally our secret

  • or a deduction

    Sarah: “Jim mustbetiredafter the flight” Sarah said Jim mustbetiredafter the flight

MUST or hadto?


References to time 1 be careful expressions of time also change

Referencestotime- 1BE CAREFUL:expressionsoftimealsochange…

Referencestotime- 1BE CAREFUL:expressionsoftimealsochange…


A cura della prof ssa domitilla gerini

Referencestotime- 2


As well as references to place

… aswellasReferenceStoplace:


Reporting questions 1

  • For yes/ no questionweuseIF or WHETHER

    Examples

    Directspeech: “Is the weathergood?”

    Reportedspeech : Rachel askedwhether the

    weatherwasgood

    asyou can see

    questions are reported USING THE WORD ORDER OF A STATEMENT – WITH THE VERB AFTER THE SUBJECT - ratherthanthatof a question

    We don’t say: Rachel askedwhetherwas the weathergood

    but:

    Rachel askedwhether the weatherwasgood

    SUBJECT VERB

REPORTING QUESTIONS - 1


Reporting questions 2

Questionswithquestionwords (who, what, etc.) keepthesewordswhenthey are reported and use the word orderof a statement (with the verbafter the subject)

Examples

Directspeech:“How do youfeel?”

Reportedspeech: Rachel asked James howhefelt (not Rachel asked James howdidhefeel)

Reportingquestions - 2


Verbs used for reporting to say

Weoftenusesayto report whatsomebodysaid

Hesaid (that) hewasgoingtowin

…but... payattention:

Ifthereisanobject (a noun or a pronoun)

saymustbefollowedbyto:

Hesaidtome (that) hewasgoingtowin (nothesaid me)

Verbsusedforreporting(tosay)


Verbs used for reporting to tell

When we use tell to report what someone said, it is always followed by an object without to:

He told them (that) he was going to win

(not he told to them …, he told that …)

Verbsusedforreporting(totell)


Reporting in the same tense

If the reportingverbis in the presenttense (e.g

says), weuse the sametensesas the original

speaker

Example:

Tom “I’ve missed the bus so I’llbe a bit late

Tom sayshe’s missed the bus so he’llbe a bit late

Reporting in the sametense


Exceptions to the general rule 1

If the reportingverbis in the past (e.g. said), wesometimesuse the sametensesas the original speaker if the situation isstilltrue:

Example 1:

Robert “I havethreesister”

There are twopossibilitieswhenreportingthissentence:

Robert saidhehasthreesisters

or

Robert saidhehadthreesisters

Exceptionsto the generalrule - 1


Exceptions to the general rule 2

Example 2:

Carlo: “I’m gettingmarried in June”

Ifwe report what Carlo saidbeforeJunewe can say:

Carlo saidheisgettingmarried in June

or

Carlo saidhewasgettingmarried in June

Exceptionsto the generalrule - 2


Other reporting verbs

ORDERSandREQUESTS are reportedusingreporting

verbssuchas:

  • ask

  • order

  • invite

    OFFERS, ADVICEandPROMISESare reportedusing the

    followingverbs:

  • offer

  • advise

  • promise

    SUGGESTIONS are reportedusing:

  • suggest

  • recommend

  • propose

Otherreportingverbs


And now give it a try

Tryto turn the followingsentencesintoreported

speech and thencheckyouranswers!

1. Jane : “ Therewasaninterestingdocumentaryabout

climatechangeyesterday”

1. Jane saidtherehadbeenaninterestingdocumentary

aboutclimatechangethe previousday.

2. Susan : “Jim, wherewillyoubetonight?”

2. Susan asked Jim wherehewouldbethat night.

3. Pete “ Mary, are yougoingtomeetyourfriendsherenext

Saturday?”

3. Peteasked Mary if/ whethershewasgoingtomeetherfriendstherethe followingSaturday.

And now…giveit a try!


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