Mutations and genetic modifications teks bio 6c
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Mutations and Genetic Modifications TEKS BIO 6C. Instructions---READ EVERYTHING.

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Mutations and genetic modifications teks bio 6c

Mutations and Genetic ModificationsTEKS BIO 6C


Instructions read everything

Instructions---READ EVERYTHING

  • Today, you will learn about MUTATIONS. Follow the powerpoint, watching any videos that may be presented, and fill in your notes as you go. Be sure to read each slide to ensure you are completing your notes correctly.


Engage one wrong letter wait for your teacher to play the video before moving on in the slide show

Engage: One Wrong Letter-Wait for your teacher to play the video before moving on in the slide show


Explore what about mistakes

Explore:What about Mistakes??

Mutation

  • Any changes to the genetic material of a cell

    Modeling Chromosomal Mutations (coloring activity)


Mutations

Mutations

  • How can mutations occur?

    • Simple replication errors in DNA

    • Environmental Mutagens

  • Scan the code below OR click the link to watch the video before moving on

How Mutations Happen


Types of mutations

Types of Mutations

  • Point Mutations

    • Base Pair Substitutions

      • Silent

      • Missense – new protein (Amino Acid Substitutions)

    • Base Pair Insertions and deletions

      • Triplet Repeats

      • Frameshift Mutations

  • Variation in Chromosome Number

  • Chromosome Abnormalities

    • Deletions

    • Translocations

    • Duplications

    • Inversions


Point mutations

Point Mutations


Potential results of point mutation

Potential Results of Point Mutation

  • Observe what happens when the following Point Mutations Occur for each set:

  • CCA=LysCCC=Lys

  • GGA=ArgGGU=Arg

  • UCU=StopUCA=Stop

  • Amino acid meaning is not altered for each set

  • This demonstrates a Silent mutation


Potential result of point mutation

Potential Result of Point Mutation

  • If the amino acid meaning is changed, cells could be altered

  • Example: Sickle Cell Anemia

    • Valine is replaced with Glutamic Acid


Point mutations frame shift

Point Mutations:Frame Shift

  • Insertion or deletion of one or more bases into the sequence of the gene

  • How many DNA nucleotides can a ribosome read at one time?

    • three letters (called CODONS) code into 1 amino acid (“word”)

    • adding or removing one letter changes each subsequent “word”

  • These mutations can make the DNA meaningless

    • shortened and functionless protein


Modeling chromosomal mutations read everything

“Modeling Chromosomal Mutations”READ EVERYTHING

  • First, read the directions on the “Modeling Chromosomal mutations” page and follow the directions about how to complete the “original chromosome.” Cut out the original chromosome and paste it to the top of your notes.

  • Continue with the slideshow AFTER coloring and answering the question below each diagram.

  • Cut out the colored diagram AND question and glue BOTH near the corresponding slide. (either on the slide or below it)


Deletion frame shifts

DeletionFrame Shifts

  • A deletion of one or more bases on a section of the chromosome.

  • Color the “deletion” section on your “modeling chromosomal mutations” page, answer the question that follows, then cut and glue both onto your slide.


Base pair insertions triplet repeats

Base Pair Insertions (Triplet Repeats)

  • Occurs when DNA is not copied correctly and a segment is repeated

  • Ex) Huntington Disease—CAG Repeat


Variation in chromosome number

Variation in Chromosome Number

  • Having any number of chromosomes that does not equal 23 pairs.

  • Ex) Down Syndrome – 3 Chromosome 21’s


Chromosome abnormalities translocations duplications inversions

Chromosome Abnormalities-Translocations-Duplications-Inversions


Translocations

Translocations

  • When one piece of a chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome

  • Color the “translocation” section on your “modeling chromosomal mutations” page, answer the question that follows, then cut and glue both onto your slide.


Duplications

Duplications

  • Occurs during crossing over and one chromosome ends up with more genes than it received.

  • Color the “duplication” section on your “modeling chromosomal mutations” page, answer the question that follows, then cut and glue both onto your slide.


Inversions

Inversions

  • A reversal in the order of a segment of a chromosome

  • Color the “inversion” section on your “modeling chromosomal mutations” page, answer the question that follows, then cut and glue both onto your slide.


Mutations and genetic modifications teks bio 6c

Heredity, Mutations, and Inheritable Diseases—Wait on your teacher to play the video before moving on in the slide show


Elaboration 1

Elaboration 1

  • The next several slides will give you information concerning a particular mutation.

  • Use the paper on the desk to respond to the scenarios.

  • Your group will be graded on your responses.


Types of mutations 1

Types of Mutations--1

  • DNA Sentence - THE FAT CAT ATE THE WEE RAT

  • Mutation - THE FAT HAT ATE THE WEE RAT

  • If this was a DNA sequence, what would this type of mutation be called?

  • Could this change cause the protein sequence to change? How?

  • If this type of mutation occurred, what, if any, might be the possible consequence for the organism?


Types of mutations 2

Types of Mutations--2

  • Original Sample Gene - THE FAT CAT ATE THE WEE RAT

  • Mutation - THE FAT KAT ATE THE WEE RAT

  • If this was a DNA sequence, what would this type of point mutation be called?

  • Was the meaning of the gene sentence altered?

  • If this type of mutation occurred, would there be any consequence for the organism? Yes/No. Why or why not?


Types of mutations 3

Types of Mutations--3

  • Original Sample Gene - THE FAT CAT ATE THE WEE RAT

  • Mutation - THE FAT CAA TET HEW EER AT

  • If this was a DNA sequence, what would this type of mutation (chromosome abnormality) be called?

  • Could this change cause the polypeptide sequence to change? Yes/No How?


Types of mutations 4

Types of Mutations--4

  • Original Sample Gene - THE FAT CAT ATE THE WEE RAT

  • Mutation - THE FAT ATE THE WEE RAT

  • If this was a DNA sequence, what would this type of mutation be called?

  • Could this change cause the polypeptide sequence to change? How?


Types of mutations 5

Types of Mutations--5

  • Original Sample Gene - THE FAT CAT ATE THE WEE RAT

  • Mutation - THE FAT CAT XLW ATE THE WEE RAT

  • If this was a DNA sequence, what would this type of mutation be called?

  • Could this change cause the polypeptide sequence to change? How?


Evaluation

Evaluation

  • The next several slides will show different types of mutations.

  • On the back of your group sheet, write type of mutation you think is represented by the picture.


What type of mutation 6

What Type of Mutation?--6


What type of mutation 7

What Type of Mutation?--7


What type of mutation 8

What Type of Mutation?--8


What type of mutation 9

What Type of Mutation?--9


What type of mutation 10

What Type of Mutation?--10


Mutations and genetic modifications teks bio 6c

Genetic ModificationWhere can it lead?—Wait for your teacher to play the video before completing your notes.


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