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Lesson Overview. 15.1 Selective Breeding. Show short videos from Nova. REVIEW. What are the two things that can get mutated (when talking DNA)? Yes! Genes & Chromosomes Did you know that some people make MUTATIONS on purpose?. THINK ABOUT IT. Where does popcorn come from?

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Lesson overview

Lesson Overview

15.1 Selective Breeding

Show short videos from Nova


Review

REVIEW

  • What are the two things that can get mutated (when talking DNA)?

  • Yes! Genes & Chromosomes

  • Did you know that some people make MUTATIONS on purpose?


Think about it

THINK ABOUT IT

  • Where does

  • popcorn come from?

  • Earliest Ex of efforts to select/improve living orgs for our benefit!

    • Bred teosinte

    • Popcorn—5000 years old!


Lesson overview

1 of world’s most impt crops!


Selective breeding

Selective Breeding

  • Breeding to pass on traits

    they want (done for 1000s of years)

  • Examples:

    • Farm animals, dogs, horses, crop plants (corn, soybeans, cotton)

  • Why?

    • Produce “disease or pesticide resistant”

    • “bigger”, “better” heartier species

    • Less land/energy, no chems & CHEAPER!

Types of GMF's


2 methods

2 Methods

1. Hybridization: Crossing dissimilar individuals to bring together both of their best characteristics

  • Ex:

    • Plant 1: Has disease resistance

    • Plant 2: High food-producing capacity

    • RESULT: A new line of plants for farmers & consumers!

    • Luther Burbank (800 new plant varieties)


2 methods1

2 Methods

2. Inbreeding:Maintains desired characteristics using similar organisms & develops pure lines.

  • Example:

    • Pure Bred DOGS

    • AKC

  • RISK?

    • May bring 2 recessive alleles for a genetic defect.

    • Blindness

    • Joint deformities


Increasing variation

Increasing Variation…

  • HOW?

    • By using radiation and chemicals (> rate)

    • Creates a few desirable mutants

  • RISK?

    • Possibly be very harmful to an animal

    • Can create non-desirable mutants!


Lesson overview

  • Biotechnology

    • Application of a technologicalprocess, invention, or method to living orgs.


Polyploid plants

Polyploid Plants

  • Larger/Stronger

  • Drugs prevent separation of chroms. during meiosis

  • Many times normal # of chroms.


Lesson overview1

Lesson Overview

15.2 Recombinant DNA


Think about it1

THINK ABOUT IT

  • Suppose you have an video game you want to change.

  • So…the game depends on a “coded program” in a computer microchip

  • You’d need a way to get existing program out of microchip, read program, make changes you want, and put modified code back into microchip.

  • What does this have to do with genetic engineering? Just about everything.


Copying dna

Copying DNA

  • How do scientists copyDNA of living orgs?

  • It is relatively easy to extract DNA and cut into fragments (Using ___________enzymes)


Dna is extracted using gel electrophoresis

DNA is Extracted using Gel Electrophoresis


Finding genes

Finding Genes

  • Douglas Prasher, MASS. Biologist (1987)

    • Jelly Fish Story (GFP-Green Flourescent Protein)

Gets E from light to glow, add GFP gene (attaching light bulb to molecule)


Lesson overview

Luciferase & Luciferin combine with ATP


Lesson overview

  • Tobacco plant with firefly genes genesgenes


Polymerase chain reaction pcr

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

  • Once biologists find a gene, PCR allows them to make many copies (4 steps).

  • 1. DNA heated (2 strands).

  • 2. Primer (short piece of DNA) added to each end

  • 3.DNA polymerase copies between primers (templates)

  • 4. Billions of DNA copies


Lesson overview

  • Is it possible to change the DNA of a living cell?

  • Griffith did it w/bacterial transformation…


Lesson overview

  • Scientists can produce custom-built DNA molecules in lab & insert into living cells

  • Recombinant-DNA technology—joining together DNA from 2+ sources (using DNA ligase)


Plasmids genetic markers

Plasmids & Genetic Markers

  • Some bacteria contain small circular DNA molecules (plasmids)

  • Put recombinant DNA into ring of DNA


Plasmid dna transformation using human growth hormone

Plasmid DNA Transformation Using Human Growth Hormone


Transgenic organisms

Transgenic Organisms

  • “Containing genes from other species”

  • Orgs produced by insertion of recombinant DNA into genome of host


Transgenic plants transforming a plant with agrobacterium

Transgenic Plants: Transforming a Plant with Agrobacterium


Gene therapy how to get the cool gene

Gene Therapy(How to get the “cool” gene!)

  • 1. Isolate foreign DNA fragment to be inserted

    • Use “restriction enzymes” to CUT DNA out

    • Like zipper (but only at certain spots-SNP)

  • 2. Attach DNA fragment to Vector (carrier)

    • viruses & plasmids

  • 3. Transfer into host organism

    • Cells “cloned” w/ normal mitosis

Do play w/ Rest. Enz., Org 1, Host Or & Vector


The liger

The Liger….

52:21 to 56:49 on Spy Kids II


Cloning animals nuclear transplantation

Cloning Animals—Nuclear Transplantation


Cloning

Cloning

  • *Genetically IDENTICAL cells produced from a SINGLE cell.

  • Nuclear Transplantation (1st remove egg’s nucleus)

  • 1952-Amphibian Tadpoles

  • 1997-Wilmut: Cloned an adult cell (Dolly) who created Bonnie & triplets.

  • Cows, pigs, mice, etc. Plants/bacteria easy.


Cloning1

Cloning

  • Reason: Hoping for medical/scientific value

  • Pro

    • Help save endangered species

    • Cure diseases

    • Make duplicate organs and prized animals

    • Create people/animals w/o certain diseases

  • Con

    • Problems are unknown!

    • If cloning humans, is this morally “right”?


Lesson overview2

Lesson Overview

15.3 Applications of Genetic Engineering


Think about it2

THINK ABOUT IT

  • Have you eaten any GM food lately?

  • 86% Corn, potatoes, or soy products

2008 meat/milk, 100% chance, eat/wear,


Agriculture and industry

Agriculture and Industry

  • Genetic modification could lead to food:

  • 1. better (Ex: Insect Resistance/Herbicide Tolerance)

  • 2. less expensive

  • 3. more nutritious &

  • 4. less harmful manufacturing processes.


Gm crops

GM Crops


What else

What ELSE?

  • Cows- 30% U.S. milk w/hormones

  • Pigs-leaner meatw/ omega-3 acids.

  • Salmon-growquickly!

  • Goats-Produce silk(spider genes) in milk .

  • Golden rice-vitamin A

  • Sheep/pigs milk produce human proteins (easy to collect/refine)


Treating disease

Treating Disease

  • Substances mass-produced by recombinant genetically-engineered (GE) bacteria

  • Human Growth Hormone

  • Insulin

  • Blood-clotting factors

  • Interleukin-2 and Interferon


Lesson overview

  • Gene therapy

    • Process of changing a gene to treat medical disorder.

    • Absent/faulty replaced by normal, working gene.

    • Allows body to make protein/enzyme it needs (eliminates cause of disorder).


Gene therapy how to get the cool gene1

Gene Therapy(How to get the “cool” gene!)

  • 1. Isolate foreign DNA fragment to be inserted

    • Use “restriction enzymes” to CUT DNA out

    • Like zipper (but only at certain spots-SNP)

  • 2. Attach DNA fragment to Vector (carrier)

    • viruses & plasmids

  • 3. Transfer into host organism

    • Cells “cloned” w/ normal mitosis

Do play w/ Rest. Enz., Org 1, Host Or & Vector


Treating disease one example of gene therapy

1999- 18-yr old died from

Gene therapy for liver

Treating Disease — One Example of Gene Therapy

  • DNA (w/therapeutic genes) inserted into modified GE virus.

  • Patient’s cells infected w/GE virus.

  • Virus inserts healthy gene into target cell & corrects defect.


Lesson overview

  • GENETIC ENGINEERING

  • GENETIC TESTING: Can diagnose 100s of disorders (like CF-3 diff base pairs)

  • ACTIVE “cancer” GENES

  • DNA Fingerprinting (areas w/no known function-good for ID)

  • Forensic Science: Crime Scenes! (save wrongful convictions)


Personal id

Personal ID

  • Blood, sperm, or tissue—(even hair strand if tissue at root)

  • Res. Enz. cut DNA, then Gel ____________ separates by size (revealing bands)

  • Band patterns can be distinguished statistically from any indiv. in world.


Tracing ancestry

Tracing Ancestry

  • Y chromosome passes directly from father to son (w/few changes).

  • Small mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) passed directly from mother to child --in egg (w/few changes)

    • Exact match in mtDNA, (share common maternal ancestor)

    • Your mothers same as her mothers, etc

  • Did President Thomas Jefferson father the child of a slave? (1998)

    • DNA testing showed descendants of son of Sally Hemings, Jefferson’s Virginia estate slave, carried his Y chrom.


Lesson overview3

Lesson Overview

15.4 Ethics and Impacts of Biotechnology


Ethics of the new biology

Ethics of the New Biology

  • The goal of Bio is to gain a better understanding of nature of life.

  • We are all responsible for ensuring tools science has given us are used wisely.


What privacy issues does biotech raise

What Privacy Issues does BioTech raise?

  • Govt wants DNA for criminal or paternity suit?

    • Military Requires (unknown soldiers in Arlington)

  • Health Insurance Co.?

  • Do you have exclusive rights to your DNA?

  • Co.’s develop profitable new crops, drugs, tests, etc.

  • Commercial Patents used (high fees to use)

  • 1/5 known genes in Human Genome patented


Concerns about gm foods

Concerns about GM Foods?

  • Insect resist. threaten beneficial insects?

  • No req.testingbefore mkt

  • No additional labeling (coming)

  • Co. GM seeds patents $, ?force small farmers OB?


Ethics of the new biology1

Ethics of the New Biology

  • Should genetic modifications to orgs be closely regulated?(GM foods treated same as non)

  • Just because we have technology to modify an orgs chars., are we justified in doing so?

  • Spiderman—with great power…

    • Cure disease? VS. Engineer taller, blonder, blued people


Ethics of the new biology2

Ethics of the New Biology

  • The goal of Bio is to gain a better understanding of nature of life.

  • We are all responsible for ensuring tools science has given us are used wisely.


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