Chapter 4
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 80

Chapter 4 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 75 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Chapter 4. Hardware for Educators. Chapter Objectives. Describe the system unit Define the term bit and describe how a series of bits are used to represent data Identify the major components of the system unit and explain their functions

Download Presentation

Chapter 4

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Chapter 4

Chapter 4

Hardware for Educators


Chapter objectives

Chapter Objectives

  • Describe the system unit

  • Define the term bit and describe how a series of bits are used to represent data

  • Identify the major components of the system unit and explain their functions

  • Explain how the CPU uses the four steps of a machine cycle to process data

  • Describe the four types of input as well as input devices and pointing devices

  • List the characteristics of a keyboard and identify various types of keyboards

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


Chapter objectives1

Chapter Objectives

  • Differentiate among the four types of output

  • Identify different types of output devices

  • Explain differences among various types of printers

  • Differentiate between storage and memory

  • Identify types of storage media and devices

  • Differentiate between CDs, DVDs, and BDs

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


The system unit

The System Unit

  • System unit

    • Boxlike case that houses the electronic components a computer uses to process data

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


Data representation

Data Representation

  • Analog vs. Digital

  • Digital

    • Two states

      • (1) on

      • (0) off

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


Data representation1

Data Representation

  • Binary number system

  • Combination of ones and zeroes represent characters

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


Data representation2

Data Representation

  • ASCII

    • American Standard Code for Information Interchange

    • Converting a keyboard stroke into a byte

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


Chapter 4

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


The components of the system unit

The Components of the System Unit

  • The Motherboard

    • Contains many of the electronic components

    • Chip

      • A small piece of semiconducting material usually no bigger than one-half-inch square and is made up of many layers of circuits and microscopic components that carry electronic signals

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


Chapter 4

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


The components of the system unit1

The Components of the System Unit

  • CPU

    • Interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate a computer

    • Microprocessor manages most of a computer’s operations

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


Chapter 4

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


The components of the system unit2

The Components of the System Unit

  • The Control Unit

    • A component of the CPU that directs and coordinates most of the operations in the computer

      • Fetch - get the next instruction from memory

      • Decode - translate the instruction

      • Execute - carry out the command

      • Store the result - write the result to memory

      • Machine cycle

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


Chapter 4

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


The components of the system unit3

The Components of the System Unit

  • The Arithmetic/Logic Unit

    • Performs the execution part of the machine cycle

    • Arithmetic (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)

    • Comparison (greater than, equal to, less than)

    • Logical (AND, OR, NOT)

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


The components of the system unit4

The Components of the System Unit

  • The System Clock

    • Synchronizes all computer operations

    • Each tick is called a clock cycle

    • Faster clock means more instructions the CPU can execute each second

    • Speed measured in gigahertz (GHz)

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


The components of the system unit5

The Components of the System Unit

  • Memory

    • Used to store data and instructions

      • The operating system and other system software

      • Application software

      • Data being processed by application programs

    • Bytes are stored at specific locations or addresses

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


Chapter 4

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


The components of the system unit6

The Components of the System Unit

  • Memory

    • Size of memory is measured by the number of bytes available

    • Volatile memory – contents are lost when the computer is turned off

    • Nonvolatile memory – contents are not lost when the computer is turned off

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


The components of the system unit7

The Components of the System Unit

  • Random Access Memory (RAM)

    • The memory chips in the system unit

    • When the computer starts, certain operating system files are loaded from a storage device into RAM

    • Synchronous Dynamic RAM (SDRAM)

    • Dual Inline Memory Module (DIMM)

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


The components of the system unit8

The Components of the System Unit

  • Random Access Memory (RAM)

    • RAM Chips

      • Smaller in size than processor chips

      • Commonly hold up to 4 gigabytes of memory

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


The components of the system unit9

The Components of the System Unit

  • Random Access Memory (RAM)

    • Configuring RAM

      • The more RAM, the more programs and files a computer can work on at once

      • Software usually tells you how much RAM is required

      • For an application to perform optimally, you usually need more than the minimum specifications

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


The components of the system unit10

The Components of the System Unit

  • Read-Only Memory (ROM)

    • Cannot be modified

    • Contents not lost when the computer is turned off

  • Flash Memory

    • Type of nonvolatile memory that can be erased electronically and rewritten on

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


The components of the system unit11

The Components of the System Unit

  • Expansion Slots and Expansion Cards

    • Expansion slot

      • A socket on the motherboard that can hold an expansion card

      • Add new devices or capabilities to the computer

    • Expansion card

      • Circuit board that enhances functions of a system component and/or provides connections to peripherals

    • Plug and Play

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


The components of the system unit12

The Components of the System Unit

  • Removable Memory Devices

    • Flash memory cards

    • USB flash drives

    • PC Cards

    • ExpressCard modules

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


The components of the system unit13

The Components of the System Unit

  • Ports and Connectors

    • Port

      • Point of attachment to the system unit

      • Usually on the back and front of the system unit

    • Connectors

      • Used to plug into ports

        • Male connectors

        • Female connectors

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


Chapter 4

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


The components of the system unit14

The Components of the System Unit

  • Ports and Connectors

    • USB

    • USB 2.0

    • USB 3.0

    • FireWire

    • Bluetooth

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


What is input

What is Input?

  • Any data or instructions you enter into the memory of a computer

    • Data – unprocessed items

    • Programs - series of instructions that tells the computer how to perform a task

    • Commands - an instruction given to a computer program

    • User responses - responses to questions or messages from the software

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


Chapter 4

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


What are input devices

What are Input Devices?

  • Any hardware component that allows you to enter data, programs, commands, and user responses into a computer

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


What are input devices1

What are Input Devices?

  • The Keyboard

    • Typing area

    • Numeric keypad

    • Toggle keys

    • Status lights

    • Arrow keys - arrow control keys

    • Function keys

    • Specialized buttons

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


Chapter 4

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


What are input devices2

What are Input Devices?

  • Pointing Devices

    • An input device that allows you to control a pointer on the screen

      • Block arrow

      • I-beam

      • Pointing hand

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


What are input devices3

What are Input Devices?

  • Pointing Devices

    • Mouse

      • One or two button mouse

      • Scroll wheel

      • Moving the mouse pointer

      • Clicking

      • Dragging

      • Double-clicking

      • Optical mouse

      • Wireless mouse

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


What are input devices4

What are Input Devices?

  • Touchpad and Pointing Stick

    • Touchpad – small, flat, rectangular pointing device that is sensitive to pressure and motion

    • Pointing Stick – pressure-sensitive pointing device shaped like a pencil eraser

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


What are input devices5

What are Input Devices?

  • Pointing Devices

    • Trackball

      • Like a mouse, but the ball mechanism is on top

      • Requires frequent cleaning

      • Good when you have limited desk space

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


What are input devices6

What are Input Devices?

  • Pointing Devices

    • Joystick

      • Uses the movement of a vertical lever

      • Often used with games

    • Wheel

      • Steering-wheel type input device

      • Used to simulate driving a car or other vehicle

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


What are input devices7

What are Input Devices?

  • Pointing Devices

    • Touch and multi-touch screens

      • Monitor has a touch sensitive panel

      • Used to issue simple commands or choose from a list of options

      • Some models of desktop and notebook computers, all tablet computers, and many mobile devices have touch screens

      • Kiosks

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


What are input devices8

What are Input Devices?

  • Optical Scanners

    • Captures an entire page of text or images such as photographs or artwork electronically

    • Converts the text or image on the original document into digital data that can be stored on a storage medium and processed by the computer

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


What are input devices9

What are Input Devices?

  • Pen Input

    • Users write, draw, and tap on a flat surface to enter input

    • Stylus – small metal or plastic device that looks like a tiny ink pen but uses pressure instead of ink

    • Digital pen – slightly larger than a stylus and provides more functionality

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


What are input devices10

What are Input Devices?

  • Digital Cameras

    • Allows you to take pictures and store the photographed images digitally

    • Download, or transfer, pictures to your computer

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


What are input devices11

What are Input Devices?

  • Audio and Video Input

    • Audio input

      • Entering speech, music, or sound effects

      • Sound card

      • Speech Recognition

        • Computer’s capability of distinguishing spoken words

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


What are input devices12

What are Input Devices?

  • Audio and Video Input

    • Video input

      • Capturing a full-motion recording onto a computer and storing the video on a computer’s storage medium

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


What are input devices13

What are Input Devices?

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


What is output

What is Output?

  • Text

  • Graphics

  • Audio

  • Video

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


What are output devices

What are Output Devices?

  • Any computer component capable of conveying information to the user

  • Commonly used output devices

    • Display devices

    • Printers

    • Data projectors

    • Facsimile machines

    • Multifunction devices

    • Interactive whiteboards

    • Speakers, headphones, and earphones

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


What are output devices1

What are Output Devices?

  • Display Devices

    • Screen housed in a plastic or metal case

    • Variety of sizes

    • Cathode ray tube (CRT)

    • Pixels

    • Flat-panel displays

      • LCD (liquid crystal display) monitors

      • LCD screens

      • Plasma monitors

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


Chapter 4

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


What are output devices2

What are Output Devices?

  • Plasma Monitors

    • Some can measure more than 150 inches wide

    • Uses gas plasma technology, which sandwiches a layer of gas between two glass plates

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


What are output devices3

What are Output Devices?

  • Monitor Quality

    • Resolution (sharpness and clarity)

      • Expressed as number of columns and rows

        • 1600 x 1200

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


What are output devices4

What are Output Devices?

  • Televisions

    • iPadusers can stream their music, photos, and videos wirelessly to a display device using AppleTV and AirPlay

    • With game consoles, such as Microsoft’s Xbox 360, Nintendo’s Wii, and Sony’s PlayStation 3, the output device often is a television

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


What are output devices5

What are Output Devices?

  • Printers

    • An output device that produces text and graphics on a physical medium such as paper or transparency film

    • Hard copy (printout)

    • Portrait orientation vs. landscape orientation

    • Printing requirements vary

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


What are output devices6

What are Output Devices?

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


What are output devices7

What are Output Devices?

  • Nonimpact Printers

    • Do not strike paper

    • Much quieter

    • Ink-jet printers

      • Spray tiny drops of ink onto the paper

      • Both black-and-white and color

    • Photo printers

      • Produce photo lab quality pictures

      • Many use ink-jet technology

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


What are output devices8

What are Output Devices?

  • Nonimpact Printers

    • Laser printers

      • High-speed, high-quality nonimpact printer

      • Very high quality resolution

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


What are output devices9

What are Output Devices?

  • Data Projectors

    • Allows an audience to view output

    • LCD projectors

    • Digital light processing (DLP) projector

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


What are output devices10

What are Output Devices?

  • Facsimile (Fax) Machine

    • Used to transmit and receive an image of a document over a telephone line

    • Stand-alone

    • Fax modem

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


What are output devices11

What are Output Devices?

  • Multifunction Devices

    • Can print, scan, copy and fax

    • Less space

    • Lower cost than separate units

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


What are output devices12

What are Output Devices?

  • Interactive whiteboards

    • Touch-sensitive device, resembling a dry-erase board

    • A presenter controls the computer program used to display the image by:

      • Clicking a remote control

      • Touching the whiteboard

      • Drawing on or erasing the whiteboard

      • Writing on a special tablet

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


What are output devices13

What are Output Devices?

  • Speakers, Headphones, and Earphones

    • Voice output

    • Audio output device

    • Internal speaker

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


What is storage

What is Storage?

  • The media on which data, instructions, and information are kept

  • The devices that record and retrieve data, instructions, and information

  • Similar to a filing cabinet

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


Storage media and devices

Storage Media and Devices

  • Storage medium

    • Also called secondary storage

    • Physical material

  • Storage device

    • Mechanism used to record and retrieve these items to and from a storage medium

    • Capacity measured in megabytes or gigabytes

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


Storage media and devices1

Storage Media and Devices

  • Magnetic Disk

    • Uses magnetic patterns to store data, instructions, and information on the disk’s surface

    • Formatting is the process of preparing a disk for reading and writing by organizing the disk into storage locations called tracks and sectors

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


Storage media and devices2

Storage Media and Devices

  • Hard Disks

    • Provide large storage capacity

    • Sizes range from 320 GB to 1.5 TB

    • Consists of several inflexible, circular disks, called platters

    • Magnetic storage device

    • Formatting

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


Storage media and devices3

Storage Media and Devices

  • Miniature and Portable Hard Disks

    • Miniature hard disks are found in consumer electronics and have greater storage capacities than flash memory

    • External hard disks connect to a USB or FireWire port by a cable

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


Storage media and devices4

Storage Media and Devices

  • Solid State Drives

    • A storage device that typically uses flash memory to store data, instructions, and information and contains no moving parts

    • Range in size from 16 GB to 512 GB

    • Used in all types of computers

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


Storage media and devices5

Storage Media and Devices

  • Optical discs

    • Type of storage medium that consists of a flat, round, portable disc made of metal, plastic, and lacquer that is written to and read from using a laser

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


Storage media and devices6

Storage Media and Devices

  • CDs and DVDs

    • Optical storage media

    • Used to distribute software

    • Laser reads pits on the surface

    • Used on multimedia computers

    • Several types

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


Storage media and devices7

Storage Media and Devices

  • Care of Optical Discs

    • Can last up to 100 years if properly cared for

    • Never bend a disc

    • Avoid extreme temperatures and humidity

    • Keep away from contaminants

    • Do not stack or touch discs

    • Use a protective case (jewel box or disc storage case)

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


Storage media and devices8

Storage Media and Devices

  • CD-ROM

    • Compact disc read-only memory

    • Can contain text, graphics, video, as well as sound

    • Can hold up to 1 GB

    • Used to distribute software

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


Storage media and devices9

Storage Media and Devices

  • CD-R and CD-RW

    • Compact disc-recordable

      • Can write on each part of the disc only one time

      • Cannot be erased

    • Compact disc-rewriteable

      • Can write on multiple times

      • Erasable disc

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


Storage media and devices10

Storage Media and Devices

  • DVD and BD

    • Digital video disc read-only memory (DVD-ROM)

      • Can store from 4.7 GB to 17 GB

      • High quality

      • DVD-ROM drives

    • BD (Blu-ray Disc) has storage capacities of 100GB, with expectations of exceeding 200 GB

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


Storage media and devices11

Storage Media and Devices

  • Miniature Mobile Storage Media

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


Storage media and devices12

Storage Media and Devices

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


Storage media and devices13

Storage Media and Devices

  • USB Flash Drive

    • Storage device that plugs into a USB port on a computer or mobile device

  • Smart Card

    • Similar in size to a credit card

    • Stores data on a thin microprocessor embedded in the card

  • Cloud Storage

    • Rapidly growing Internet service that provides storage to computer users

    • Apple’s iCloud

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


Storage media and devices14

Storage Media and Devices

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


Chapter summary

Chapter Summary

  • Describe the system unit

  • Define the term bit and describe how a series of bits are used to represent data

  • Identify the major components of the system unit and explain their functions

  • Explain how the CPU uses the four steps of a machine cycle to process data

  • Describe the four types of input as well as input devices and pointing devices

  • List the characteristics of a keyboard and identify various types of keyboards

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


Chapter summary1

Chapter Summary

  • Differentiate among the four types of output

  • Identify different types of output devices

  • Explain differences among various types of printers

  • Differentiate between storage and memory

  • Identify types of storage media and devices

  • Differentiate between CDs, DVDs, and BDs

Chapter 4: Hardware for Educators


Chapter 4 complete

Chapter 4 Complete

Hardware for Educators


  • Login