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WORLD WAR I “The War to End War” 1917 - 1918. LONG-TERM CAUSES OF THE WORLD WAR I. Nationalism. Militarism. Imperialism. Alliances. Woodrow Wilson’s Diplomacy President Wilson opposed imperialism; believed democracy was necessary to keep the

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WORLD WAR I “The War to End War” 1917 - 1918

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World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

WORLD WAR I

“The War to End War”

1917 - 1918


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

LONG-TERM CAUSES

OF THE WORLD WAR I

Nationalism

Militarism

Imperialism

Alliances


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

Woodrow Wilson’s Diplomacy

President Wilson opposed

imperialism; believed

democracy was

necessary to keep the

nation prosperous.

He said he wanted a

world free from

revolution and war.

But.......

Woodrow Wilson


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • 1911 - Revolution broke out in Mexico.

  • Wilson refused to recognize the new government.

  • 1914 - Wilson sent U.S. Marines to seize the Mexican port of Veracruz and overthrow Huerta, the new leader.

  • Anti-American riots broke out in Mexico.

Huerta


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • Pancho Villa led a guerrillaattack into New Mexico, and a number of Americans were killed.

Pancho Villa

  • Wilson sent General John J. Pershing and his troops into Mexico to capture Villa; they were unsuccessful.

  • Wilson’s Mexican policy damaged U.S. foreign relations.

Gen. John J. “Black Jack” Pershing


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

The Outbreak of World War I

  • By 1871 German states were united.

  • The new Germany changed European politics; France and Germany were enemies.

  • Germanyformed the Triple Alliance with Austria-Hungary and Italy.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • In the early 1900s, as a result of imperialism, Great Britain began an arms race with Germany.

  • Britain entered into an alliance with France and Russia.

  • The three countries became known as the Triple Entente.

Britain

Russia

France


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • Nationalism, intense pride for one’s homeland, was BIG in Europe in the late 1800s.

  • The right to self-determination (idea that people should have their own country and government) was a basic idea of nationalism.

  • Led to Balkans crisis; different national groups in the Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian Empires began to seek independence.

NATIONALISM


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • June 1914 - ArchdukeFranz Ferdinand (heir to Austro-Hungarian throne) was killed by a Bosnian revolutionary.

  • This act set off a chain of events that led to World War I.

Archduke

Franz Ferdinand

and Sophie --

just minutes

before they were

assassinated.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • The Allies – France, Russia, Great Britain, and later Italy – fought for the Triple Entente.

  • Germany and Austria-Hungary joined the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria to form the Central Powers.

  • Germany and France became locked in a stalematealong hundreds of miles of trenches.

  • The stalemate lasted three years.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

Trench Warfare


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

Trench Foot


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

Rats

in the

Trenches


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

American Neutrality

  • Wilson declared the United States to beneutral.

  • Americans, however, began showing support for one side or the other. Many immigrants supported their homelands.

  • Most Americans favored the Allied cause.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • American businesses had close ties to the Allied countries.

  • Many American banks gave loans to the Allies.

  • As a result, American prosperity was tied to the war.

  • The money would be paid back only if the Allies won.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

Propaganda was an important tool in building up the American public’s support of the Allied Powers.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

British propaganda aimed at the USA.

Caption:

"It should be America's duty to help us subdue the mad dog of Europe."


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

Moving Toward War

While most Americans supported the Allies, they did not want to enter the war.

  • The British navy blockaded Germany to keep it from getting supplies.

  • To get around the blockade, Germany deployed submarines known asU-boats.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • Germany threatened to sink any ship that entered the waters around Britain.

  • Attacking civilians ships without warning violated international law; U.S. was outraged!

  • The Lusitania, British passenger liner, was hit by the Germans, killing almost 1,200 passengers – including 128 Americans.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • U.S. warned Germany to stop U-boat strikes!

  • Germany did not want the U.S. to join the war and strengthen the Allies, so it agreed to stop.

  • Sussex Pledge - promise made by Germany to stop sinking merchant ships; kept the United States out of the war for a bit longer.

German Imperial Army flag


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • German official, Arthur Zimmermann, cabled the German ambassador in Mexico; offered Mexico an alliance with Germany and territory Mexico had previously lost to the U.S.

  • Zimmermann telegram was intercepted by British intelligence and leaked to US newspapers.

  • Americans were furious!!!

Arthur Zimmermann


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • February 1917 - Germany went back to using unrestricted submarine warfare; soon after, sank six American merchant ships.

  • On April 6, 1917, the United States declared war against Germany.

President Woodrow Wilson asking Congress for a Declaration of War


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

Building Up the Military

  • More U.S. soldiers needed!

  • Many progressives thought conscription (forced military service) violated democratic principles.

  • A new system of conscription, called selective service, resulted in about 2.8 million Americans being drafted.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • The navy enlisted some 11,000 women; jobs included clerks, radio operators, electricians, pharmacists, photographers, chemists, and torpedo assemblers.

  • The army, choosing not to enlist women, hired them as temporary employees to fill clerical positions.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

Organizing Industry

  • President Wilson and Congress wanted to establish a cooperative relationship between big business and government to ensure efficient use of resources during the war.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • The Food Administration, under the direction of Herbert Hoover, was responsible for increasing food production while reducing consumption.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • Hoover asked people to plant victory gardens to raise their own vegetables in order to leave more food for the troops.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • The Fuel Administration encouraged people to conserve coal and oil.

  • Daylight savingstime was introduced to conserve energy.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • To raise money to pay for the war, the government began selling Liberty Bonds and Victory Bonds.

  • By buying bonds, Americans were loaning the government money that would be repaid with interest in a specified number of years.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

Mobilizing the Workforce

  • To prevent strikes, the government established the National War Labor Board (NWLB) in 1918.

  • In exchange for wage increases, an 8-hour workday, and the right to organize unions and bargain collectively, labor leaders agreed not to strike during the war.

NO

STRIKES!


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

Ensuring Public Support

  • Espionage, or spying to acquire secret government information, was addressed in the Espionage Act of 1917.

  • It set up consequences for people who aided the enemy.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • The Sedition Act of 1918 made it illegal to criticize the president or the government.

  • Suspicions of disloyalty led to mistreatment of German Americans. Anti-German feelings sometimes led to violence.

  • Radical labor activists, socialists, pacifists, and anyone appearing disloyal also came under attack.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • In the case of Schenck v. United States(1919), the Supreme Court ruling limited an individual’s freedom of speech if the words spoken constituted a “clear and present danger.”


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

Combat in World War I

  • By 1917 World War I had claimed millions of European lives.

  • Americans believed their troops could bring the war to a quick end.

  • Soldiers dug trenches as protection from modern weapons.

  • “No man’s land” was the space between the opposing trenches.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • To break through enemy lines, new technologies were created.

  • Poison gas, first used by the Germans; caused vomiting, blindness, and suffocation.

  • Tanksdid not work well.

  • Airplanesdropped small bombs on the enemy and engaged in air battles ("dogfights").


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

The Americans and Victory

  • “Doughboys” - nickname for American soldiers.

  • Entry of American soldiers boosted the morale of Allied forces.

  • Convoys - merchant ships and troop transports were gathered into groups and brought across the Atlantic by warships.

  • Result: reduced shipping losses; ensured that American troops would get to Europe safely.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • Although Russians supported the war effort, their government was not equipped to handle the major problems of the nation.

  • In 1917 Vladimir Lenin, leader of the BolshevikParty, overthrew the czar’s government and replaced it with Communism.

Lenin


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • Lenin pulled Russia out of the war.

  • Signed theTreatyof Brest-Litovskwith Germany.

  • This closed the Eastern Front for Germany.

Territories surrendered by Soviet Russia due to Brest-Litovsk Treaty


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • September 1918 - General Pershing put together the most massive attack in American history; devastated German troops.

  • On November 11, 1918, Germany finally signed an armistice, or cease-fire, that ended the war.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

A Flawed Peace

  • January 1919 - Allied nations met to resolve issues caused by WWI.

  • Wilson’s plan - called the Fourteen Points.

  • Tried to eliminate general causes of the war:

    1. Free trade (Imperialism)

    2. Disarmament (Militarism)

    3. Open diplomacy (Secret Alliances)

    4. Self-determination (Nationalism)

X

X

X

X


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • Fourteenth point, known as the League of Nations, called for member nations to help preserve peace and prevent future wars.

THE FOURTEEN POINTS Woodrow Wilson – 1/18/1918

1. Open alliances 6-13. Specific provisions for:

2. Freedom of the seas Russia, Belgium, France

3. Open trade Italy, Austria-Hungary

4. Disarmament Balkan Nations, Turkey

5. Self-determination

for nations

14. League of Nations


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

“The Big Four” Lloyd George (Great Britain); Orlando (Italy); Clemenceau (France); Wilson (US)

Peace Conference at Versailles


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • The other Allied governments felt that Wilson’s plan was too lenient toward Germany.

  • Treaty of Versailles - weakened Wilson’s proposal. Stripped Germany of its armed forces and made it pay reparations(war damages) to Allies.

  • Treaty of Versailles and League of Nations were opposed by many U.S. lawmakers.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • The Senate refused to ratifythe treaty.

  • Instead, the United States negotiated separate peace treaties with each of the Central Powers.


M c 3 3a

M/C 3-3a


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

An Economy In Turmoil

  • Rapid inflationresulted when government agencies removed their controls from the American economy. Inflation increased the cost of living.

  • Workers needed higher wagesto keep up with the cost of living, but companies wanted to lower wagesdue to an increase in operating costs.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • The number of members in unionsincreased greatly during the war.

  • Unions were better organized than before.

  • Business leaders wanted to break the power of unions.

  • Result: Lots of strikes!

  • Led to fear among U.S. public.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • General strikes– strikes that involve all workers living in a certain location; worried Americans because they were commonly used in Europe by Communists and other radicals.

  • The Seattle general strike involved more than 60,000 people and brought the city to a halt for five days.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • 1919 - 75 percent of the police force of Boston went on strike.

  • Governor of Massachusetts, CalvinCoolidge, called in the National Guard to stop looting.

  • When police tried to return to work, Coolidge fired them; a new police force was hired to replace the striking policemen.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

Racial Unrest

  • 1919 - race riots in many Northern cities.

  • Cause: return of thousands of American soldiers who needed to find jobs.

  • African Americans, who had moved north to work, were now competing for the same jobs as the returning soldiers.


Riots

  • The worst violence occurred in Chicago where whites and African Americans entered each others’ neighborhoods and attacked one another.

  • The violence lasted almost two weeks.

Riots


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

Fear of Communism

  • After World War I, Americans associated communism with disloyalty and unpatriotic behavior.

  • The numerous strikes in the U.S. in 1919made Americans fear thatCommunists, or “reds,” might take control.

  • This led to a nationwide panic known as the Red Scare.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • Numerous mail bombs

  • One bomb damaged home of U.S. Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer.

  • Most people felt it was Communists trying to destroy the American way of life.

US Attorney General

A. Mitchell Palmer


Chapter assessment 1

Reviewing Key Terms

Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left.

D

__ 1.German submarine, term means Unterseeboot (undersea boat)

__ 2.payment by the losing country in a war to the winner for the damages caused by the war

__ 3.goods whose importation, exportation, or possession is illegal

__ 4.the spreading of ideas about an institution or individual for the purpose of influencing opinion

__ 5.requiring people enter military service

A.guerrilla

B.propaganda

C.contraband

D.U-boat

E.conscription

F.victory garden

G.espionage

H.armistice

I.reparations

J.deport

I

C

B

E

Chapter Assessment 1


Chapter assessment 2

Reviewing Key Terms (cont.)

Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left.

F

__ 6.gardens planted by American citizens during war to raise vegetables for home use, leaving more for the troops

__ 7.to expel individuals from the country

__ 8.spying, especially to gain government secrets

__ 9.a temporary agreement to end fighting

__ 10.armed band that carries out surprise attacks and sabotage rather than open warfare

A.guerrilla

B.propaganda

C.contraband

D.U-boat

E.conscription

F.victory garden

G.espionage

H.armistice

I.reparations

J.deport

J

G

H

A

Chapter Assessment 2


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