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Culling K-band Luminous, Massive Star Forming Galaxies at z>2. N. ARIMOTO (NAOJ). X.Kong, M.Onodera, C.Ikuta (NAOJ),K.Ohta (Kyoto), N.Tamura (Durham),A.Renzini, E.Daddi (ESO), A.Cimatti (Arcetri), T.Broadhurst (Tel ’ Aviv). Formation of Giant Ellipticals.

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culling k band luminous massive star forming galaxies at z 2
Culling K-band Luminous, Massive Star Forming Galaxies at z>2

N. ARIMOTO (NAOJ)

X.Kong, M.Onodera,

C.Ikuta (NAOJ),K.Ohta (Kyoto),

N.Tamura (Durham),A.Renzini, E.Daddi (ESO), A.Cimatti (Arcetri), T.Broadhurst (Tel’Aviv)

formation of giant ellipticals
Formation of Giant Ellipticals

Massive elliptical galaxies are the products of

recent hierarchical merging of pre-existing

disk galaxies taking place largely at z<1.5

with moderate SFRs (eg, Cole et al. 2000).

Near IR wide field imaging is crucial.

Fully assembled massive galaxies with

Ms>1011Mo at z>2 are extremely rare.

Mass Function Evolution

(Baugh et al. 2002)

previous nir i mage s urvey s
Previous NIR Image Surveys

1. Hubble Deep Field North & South 2x5.3 arcmin2

2. K20 (NTT) 52 arcmin2

3. Subaru Deep Field (Ks=22.6) 4 arcmin2

4. Subaru XMM Deep Field (Ks=22.1) 114 arcmin2

5. Goods (HDF-N & CDF-S) 160 arcmin2

6. Hubble Ultra Deep Field (NICMOS) 5.8 arcmin2

7. EIS3a-F (Subaru/VLT, Ks=20.8) 900 arcmin2

8. Daddi-F (Subaru/VLT, Ks=19.0) 900 arcmin2

subaru sup cam observation
Subaru/Sup-Cam Observation

ESO Imaging Survey (EIS Deep 3a) Field

RA=11:24:50, DEC=-21:42:00 (J2000.0)

Subaru/Suprime-Cam BRIz’: 2003/03/02-04

NTT/SOFI JK : 2002/03/28-31

BRIz’ (900 arcmin^2) 3σ in 2”(AB)

B(AB)=27.46 R(AB)=26.87

I(AB)=26.56 z’(AB)=26.07

JK (500, 380 arcmin^2) 3σ in 2”(AB)

J(AB)=23.40, Ks(AB)=22.70

subaru sup cam observation1
Subaru/Sup-Cam Observation

Daddi Field

RA=14:49:29, DEC=09:00:00 (J2000.0)

Subaru/Suprime-Cam BIz’: 2003/03/02-04

WHT R : 1998/03/19-21

NTT/SOFI K : 1999/03/27-30

BRIz’ (900 arcmin^2) 3σ in 2”(AB)

B(AB)=26.59 R(AB)=25.64

I(AB)=25.62 z’(AB)=25.31

K (715 arcmin^2) 3σ in 2”(AB)

Ks(AB)=20.91

k selected h igh z g alaxies
K-selected High-z Galaxies
  • Extremely Red Objects (EROs)
  • McCarthey et al (1992)
  • R-K>5.0, I-K>4.0, z>1.0,
  • Old Passive & Dusty Star-Forming Galaxies

780 EROs in Deep3a-F

380 EROs in Daddi-F

240 DRGs in Deep3a-F

2. Distant Red Galaxies (DRGs)

Frank et al. (2003)

J-K>2.3, z>2

new galaxy population bzks
New Galaxy Population (BzKs)

Daddi et al. (2005): BzK=(z-K)AB-(B-z)AB>-0.2

high z galaxies in our fields
High-z galaxies in our fields

Star-forming galaxies at z>1.4 (BzKs)

Old galaxies at

z>1.4: PEGs

BzKs

stars

425 BzK in Deep 3a

145 BzK in Daddi-F

slide14

BzK(ERO) BzK BzK BzK

ERO ERO ERO ERO

slide15

Z=1.5564

CIV

VLT Observation of ~300 BzK galaxies

slide17

Lyα

z=2.3894

CIV

slide18

Lyα

z=2.8453

CIV

internal reddening
Internal reddening

BzK

ERO

  • B-z (the slope of UV spectrum) color E(B-V) of SFGs.
  • BzKs are dusty galaxies
  • ERO: OGs & DGs have different internal reddening.

Kong, Charlot, Brinchman, Fall (2004)

stellar mass
Stellar Mass

BzKs

EROs

Stellar mass : based on multi-color photometry

EROs and BzKs are similar (on average)

30% BzKs & EROs : M>1.0E11M @ Deep3a-F Klim=20.2 mag

55% BzKs & EROs : M>1.0E11M @Daddi-F Klim=18.8 mag

slide24

Star Formation Rate

UV Flux: 1500A<λ<2800A

NIR spectra (Subaru)

  • Dad1901

SFR(Ha)=60 M/yr

SFR(UV)=70 M/yr

  • Dad2326

SFR(Ha)=250 M/yr

SFR(UV)=180M/yr

  • BzKs have high SFRs
  • EROs : OGs/DGs diff.
slide25

burst age

reddening

stellar mass

SFR

sky positions of bzks eros
Sky positions of BzKs & EROs

BzKs

EROs

  • Angular two-point correlation function: Landy & Szalay (1993)
    • w(q)= (DD-2DR+RR)/RR=Aq-d (d=0.8)
clustering properties
Clustering Properties

Field Galaxies

Field Galaxies

EROs

EROs

BzKs

BzKs

a new population of near ir bright z 2 galaxies
A New Population of near-IRbright, z~2 Galaxies

K>20 HST/ACS F435W, F850LP & K-band (VLT+ISAAC)

A sample of 9 galaxies at 1.7<z<2.23 with bright

K-band magnitudes 18.7<K<20 has recently been

discovered (Daddi et al. 2003, astro-ph/0308456).

summar y
Summary
  • BzKs
    • High internal reddening : E(B-V)~0.5
    • strong star formation : SFR~200 M/yr
    • Massive galaxies : >30% (K=20) M>1.0E11M
    • Strong 2-D clustering
  • EROs (R-K>5) :DGs & OGs
    • OGs: passive galaxies
    • DGs: some of them are BzKs
    • OGs have low SFRs
    • Strong clustering and massive
  • LBGs

E(B-V)≤0.3, SFR< 70 M/yr, clustering

summary
Summary

BzK selection is a quite powerful way to separate

star forming galaxies at 1.4<z<2.5.

BzKs are different from LBGs (low extinction, low SFR).

Some BzKs are dusty EROs (high extinction, low SFR),

but most of BzKs are not EROs.

K-band luminous, massive, high-SFRs galaxies at z>2

are likely to be possible precursors of z~1 passively

evolving EROs and z=0 elliptical galaxies.

Submm galaxies are sub-populations of BzKs with

extremely high SFRs and metallicities.

conclusions
Conclusions
  • We have discovered a new population of reddened,
  • vigorous star-forming massive galaxies at z>2.
  • Their masses, likely extremely high star formation
  • rates, HST/ACS morphologies, clustering properties,
  • all suggest that they may be the long-sought-for
  • progenitors of nearby massive ellipticals, close to
  • their epoch of formation.
  • What Next?
  • Confirming the High SFRs, High metallicity
  • Contribution to the z>2 SFR Density
  • Understand the link between BzK and Submm Gals
  • CO follow-up
  • Co-evolution of BzK and Massive BHs ………
  • COSMOS, NEP. SXDS, etc to see cosmic variance
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