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Automatic Generation of Animated Presentations. Gur Wizenfeld Advanced Software Tools Seminar – June 2004. Agenda. Introduction to animated presentations generation Stating the problem Applications Solution Considerations Approaches Hierarchical task decomposition (Karp & Feiner).

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Automatic generation of animated presentations l.jpg

Automatic Generation of Animated Presentations

Gur Wizenfeld

Advanced Software Tools Seminar – June 2004


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Agenda

  • Introduction to animated presentations generation

    • Stating the problem

    • Applications

  • Solution Considerations

  • Approaches

    • Hierarchical task decomposition (Karp & Feiner)

Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004


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Methodology

  • Purpose

    • Introduce the problem and its complexity

    • Introduce and evaluate various solution approaches

  • Main Resources

    • Steven Drucker, Intelligent Camera Control for Graphical Environments [3].

    • Peter Karp and Steven Feiner, Issues in the Automated Generation of Animated Presentations [5].

    • Peter Karp and Steven Feiner, Automated Presentation Planning Using Task Decomposition with Heuristic Reasoning [6].

    • D.A. Friedman and Y. A. Feldman, “Knowledge-Based Cinematography and its Applications,” Proc. 16th European Conf. Artificial Intelligence (ECAI 2004), August 2004 [4].

    • David Christianson et al., Declarative Camera Control for Automatic Cinematography [2].

    • Maneesh Agrawala, “Designing Effective Step-By-Step Assembly Instructions”, SIGGRAPH 2003 [1].

Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004


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Introduction to Animated Presentations Generation


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Stating the Problem

  • Given a script, describing a dynamic virtual 3D environment, generate an animated presentation of the script’s relevant information.

Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004


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Example: A Soccer Game

  • Versatile content

  • Versatile style

    • Slow motion

    • Multiple camera angles

    • Textual annotations

  • Dynamic

  • Parallel occurrences

  • Real-time (unpredictable)

Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004


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Stating the Problem (Detailed)

  • Environment

    • Spatial organization of 3D objects

    • 3D representation of objects (e.g., polygonal mesh)

    • Dynamic

    • Objects may be capable of modifying the environment.

Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004


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Stating the Problem (Detailed)

  • Script

    • Written in a formal language

    • Describes all modifications to the environment over time

    • Possibly annotated

    • Possibly unpredictable (e.g., in interactive applications)

Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004


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14:46

Stating the Problem (Detailed)

  • Presentation

    • A description of every frame of the animated presentation

      • A combination of viewports

      • The contents of each viewport is generated by rendering the environment from a virtual camera’s point of view.

    • Specifying camera parameters for each viewport in each frame is sufficient.

    • Possible extensions:

      • Audio

      • Textual annotations

      • Lighting

Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004


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Applications: 3D Visualization

  • Virtual environment walkthroughs

    • Architecture

    • Virtual malls

  • Scientific Visualization

    • Large multidimensional datasets exploration

      • Medical imaging

      • Weather simulation

Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004


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Applications: Entertainment

  • Computer animated movies

  • Games

    • Highly interactive  Unpredictable script

    • Rich 3D environment

    • Fast Paced

    • MUDs

      • Parallel & distributed

      • Raises the need for automated summaries

Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004


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Applications: Design & Planning

  • CAD

  • Manufacturing process planning

  • Animation generation

Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004


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Solution Considerations


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Solution Considerations: User Task

  • Exploration

    • Orientation

    • Navigation

    • Search/Wander

  • Planning

  • Control & Teleoperation

Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004


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Solution Considerations:Degree of Interaction

  • Frequency of interaction

    • Continuous vs. autonomous

  • Style of interaction

    • Direct control of camera vs. symbolic specification

Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004


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Solution Considerations: Supporting Cognitive Capabilities

  • Presentation viewing and understanding is based on complex underlying perceptive and cognitive mechanisms.

    • Motion from still images

    • 3D spatial relations from 2D projections

    • Recognition

    • Attention

    • Memory

    • (Story understanding)

  • A comprehensive cognitive model would help, but is difficult to construct.

Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004


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Solution Considerations:Collective Cinematic Experience

  • Collective human experience of cinematic expression has formed a cinematic language.

    • Grammar

    • Rules

    • Idioms

      • An Idiomis a stereotypical way to capture some specific action as a series of shots.

    • Evolving genres

Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004

  • Trevor Goring

    www.famousframes.com


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Solution Considerations: Continuity

  • Avoid “jump cuts” (i.e., cuts between which the camera rotates about the object by less than 30.)

  • Do not interrupt a steady, flowing action with a cut (or use time overlapping shots.)

  • Maintain the relative screen position of an object across cuts.

    • Avoid “line crossing” in a cut (or use an intermediate shot.)

Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004


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Example: Avoid Line Crossing

  • Andrew Burward-Hoy

    www.famousframes.com

Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004


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Presentation Hierarchy

Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004


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Select Content

Relevance

Summarization

Map Script-time to presentation-time

Parallelism

Pacing

Determine Presentation Hierarchy

Structuring shots to scenes, etc.

Transitions

Viewports layout

Requirements Summary

Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004


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Requirements Summary

  • Camera placement

    • Visibility

      • Occlusion avoidance

      • Projection size

    • Recognition

      • Preferred viewing directions (“gaze vectors”)

    • Maximization of geometric information

      • Spatial relations

      • Distortion avoidance

      • Selection of geometric features

  • Obey cinematic conventions

    • Use idioms correctly

    • Maintain continuity

    • Adhere to genre rules

  • Take into account cognitive capabilities and limitations.

Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004


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Script

Understanding &

Analysis

Presentation

Generation

Presentation

Rendering

Solution Map

Script

Presentation

Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004


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Hierarchical Task Decomposition

Automated Presentation Planning of Animation Using Task Decomposition with Heuristic Reasoning

P. Karp and S. Feiner


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Solution Highlights

  • Creates a complete presentation structure (from film level to single shot level.)

  • Uses communicative goals to guide presentation generation.

  • Formalizes and uses cinematic knowledge in a straightforward manner.

  • Reduces redundant computational effort.

Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004


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Hierarchical Task Breakdown Example

Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004


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Film structure hierarchy is used to guide decomposition of the presentation task.

Communicative Goals define the requirements at each level.

Presentation Generation Task Decomposition

Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004


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ESPLANADE – Solution Testbed

  • Expert System for PLANning Animation, Design and Editing

  • Environment: crane activation in a warehouse

Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004


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Presentation Processing in Levels

  • Scene Structuring Techniques (idioms):

    • Master shot discipline

    • How-To structure

    • Causal Structure

Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004


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Presentation Example

  • Script:

    • Move roll-2 with the crane.

    • Move roll-7 with the crane.

    • Causal information between button pressing and crane operations.

  • Communicative Goals:

    • Show moving of roll-2.

    • Show moving of roll-7.

    • Show causal relation between pressing the “up” button and raising the crane’s hoist.

Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004


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Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004


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Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004


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Pros

Provides a solution for a complete presentation hierarchy. Can be generalized to support arbitrary-depth hierarchies.

Separates communicative goals from their implementation as idioms.

Formalizes goals and idioms in a “natural” manner. Goals and idioms can be added.

Task decomposition approach reduces computational effort.

Cons

Resulting presentations are rigid and predictable.

Every combination of goals requires a specific idiom.

Does not support conflicts between goals and idioms.

Evaluation

Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004


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Summary


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Conclusions

  • Use of cinematic rules is crucial.

    • Rules evolve  flexibility and scalability

    • Rules often conflict  contradiction handling

  • Search space can be reduced by an appropriate abstraction.

  • Symbolic representation is critical for usability.

  • Script understanding and automatic communicative goal extraction are still a long way ahead.

Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004


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References

  • Background

    • [1] M. Agrawala, D. Phan, J. Heiser, J. Haymaker, J. Kilngner, P. Hanrahan and B. Tversky, “Designing Effective Step-By-Step Assembly Instructions,” In SIGGRAPH 2003.

    • [2] D.B. Christianson, S.E. Anderson, L. He, D.H. Salesin, D.S. Weld and M.F. Cohen, “Declarative Camera Control for Automatic Cinematography,”Proceedings of the Thirteenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, vol. 1, pages 148—155, 1996.

    • [3] S.M. Drucker, “Intelligent Camera Control for Graphical Environments,” PhD Thesis, MIT, 1994.

    • [4] D.A. Friedman and Y.A. Feldman, “Knowledge-Based Cinematography and its Applications,”Proc.16th European Conf. Artificial Intelligence (ECAI 2004), August

    • 2004

  • Hierarchical Task Decomposition

    • [5] P. Karp and S. Feiner, “Issues in the automated generation of animated presentations,”Proceedings of Graphics Interface '90, pages 39--48, May 1990.

    • [6] P. Karp and S. Feiner, “Automated presentation planning of animation using task decomposition with heuristic reasoning,”Proc. of Graphics Interface 93, pages 118-127, 1993.

Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004


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Thank You


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Detours


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Detour: Advances in computer games

Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004


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Detour: Idioms

  • An Idiomis a stereotypical way to capture some specific action as a series of shots.

(AcFilmIdiom name approach-idiom

:parameter (AcParamApproach :actor1 :actor2 :start :stop)

(AcFilmShot name shot1

(AcFragGoBy name frag1

:time ?start

:primary-moment beginning

:entry-pos center

:exit-pos out-left

...)

...)

...)

Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004


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Detour: Idioms

Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004


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Crane

Tilt

Zoom

Roll

Pan

Truck

Dolly

Detour: Rendering

{X, Y, Z, Rx, Ry, Rz, fov}7

Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004


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Detour: Rendering

  • Transforms objects from a perspective view in the world space into the screen’s display space.

Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004


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