Principle of Double Effect. One act can embrace two effects – an intended good effect and an unintended bad effect Morality of the act is governed by the intended effect Ethically permissible only if: act is morally good or at least morally neutral only good effect is intended
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if the first purpose of medicine, the restoration of health, could no longer be achieved, there was still much for the doctor to do, and he was entitled to do all that was proper and necessary to relieve pain and suffering even if the measures he took might incidentally shorten life”
- isn’t the actor who foresees the consequences of an action acting intentionally and therefore culpable or responsible for the act and its outcome ?
Quality of life as means of determining best interests:
Medical profession not required to carry out treatment against their clinical judgement:
Application of parental views:
Treatment using force not in patient’s best interests: