How to achieve universal modern energy access by 2030
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How to Achieve Universal Modern Energy Access by 2030?. Hisham Zerriffi (UBC) Shonali Pachauri (IIASA). Current Status of Global Modern Energy Access. >40% of the globe lacks access to clean cooking >20% of the globe lacks access to any electricity.

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How to Achieve Universal Modern Energy Access by 2030?

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How to achieve universal modern energy access by 2030

How to Achieve Universal Modern Energy Access by 2030?

Hisham Zerriffi (UBC)

Shonali Pachauri (IIASA)


Current status of global modern energy access

Current Status of Global Modern Energy Access

>40% of the globe lacks access to clean cooking

>20% of the globe lacks access to any electricity

Source: Global Energy Assessment - Pachauri et al., 2012


What do we mean b y access

Physical access to energy – availability

Economic access to energy –

Affordability of a connection and equipment

Affordability of the fuel or energy type

Illegal access –

electricity thefts and unaccounted for T&D losses

Quality and reliability of access – uninterrupted access and regular and easy supply

Quantity of access – minimum thresholds of use

What Do We Mean By Access?


Electricity central to all aspects of well being development

Electricity Central to All Aspects of Well-being & Development


Negative consequences of solid fuels dependence

Negative Consequences of Solid Fuels Dependence

Social costs

  • ~4 million premature deaths a year from household air pollution

  • Between 1 to 5 billion women-hours lost annually in collection

    Impacts on livelihood

  • Limited productive hours in the day

  • Limited work and business possibilities

    Environmental impacts

  • Local forest, land and soil degradation

  • CO2 emissions if biomass is unsustainably harvested

  • Emissions of non-CO2 GHG and aerosols with higher GWP

  • Growing evidence of strong climate impacts of black carbon (soot)


How to achieve universal modern energy access by 2030

Is Universal Access to Modern Energy Achievable by 2030?


Historical electrification trends

Historical Electrification Trends

Source: Global Energy Assessment - Pachauri et al., 2012


How to achieve universal modern energy access by 2030

  • Trends in Electricity Access for Regions with Least Access

  • The pace of electrification across time and regions has been very uneven

  • China electrified its entire population over a few decades. Thailand and South Africa, connected over 0.4 million new customers annually over a period of 5 years

  • In SSA the growth in population, particularly in rural areas, still outpaces the rate of new connections


Recent trends in access to modern energy for cooking

Recent Trends in Access to Modern Energy for Cooking

  • The number of people dependent on biomass alone has declined from 2.8 billion in 2000 to 2.7 billion in 2009, largely due to reduced dependence in China

  • However, in addition to these numbers, 30% of people in China continue to depend on coal and over 10% in SSA depend on charcoal, so over 3 billion people still depend on solid fuels today

  • In rural areas, dependence on solid fuels remains almost unchanged over the last decade in many developing countries


Without new and dedicated policies access goals by 2030 unachievable

Without New and Dedicated Policies Access Goals by 2030 Unachievable


New combinations of policies for modern cooking access

New Combinations of Policies for Modern Cooking Access

Fuel subsidies coupled with grants or microfinance schemes that make cheap credit available for the purchase of new stoves are most effective

An additional 200 million without access by 2030

People gaining access to modern energy carriers

Microfinance alone not very effective

Subsidies alone reduce dependence by one-third

Source: Riahi et al., ‘Energy Pathways for Sustainable Development’, GEA, 2012, p. 1205-1305.


Energy demand implications of access policies

Energy Demand Implications of Access Policies

  • Total household final energy demand is lower with access policies, though electricity and modern cooking fuel demand will rise

Source: Riahi et al., ‘Energy Pathways for Sustainable Development’, GEA, 2012, p. 1205-1305.


Changes in ghg emissions due to access policies by region

Changes in GHG Emissions Due to Access Policies by Region

Net Impacts on emissions are negligible

Source: Riahi et al., ‘Energy Pathways for Sustainable Development’, GEA, 2012, p. 1205-1305.


What it will take to achieve universal access by 2030

What it will take to Achieve Universal Access by 2030?

The GEA estimates, total investments of $ 36 - 41 billion per year till 2030, ~ 5% of global annual energy sector investments, <8% of current fossil subsidies globally

Detailed local assessments of existing demands, affordability and options for expanding access

Focused and sustained government commitment and targeted and responsive policies:

  • Targeted price support (subsidies) on modern fuels

  • Grants or easier microcredit access for upfront costs

    Flexible and adequate institutional arrangements with local involvement and enhanced capacity building

    New business models and mechanisms to incentivize private sector involvement and cost recovery


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