The Brain
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The Brain aka Mr. England. Why is it important? How did we learn about it? How did it develop? What does it do? How do we fix it? How do we diagnosis problems?. The Brain. Why is it important?. If you don’t have it you don’t know it. If you do,you wonder why you don’t have more.

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Why is it important? How did we learn about it? How did it develop? What does it do?

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Why is it important how did we learn about it how did it develop what does it do

The Brain

aka Mr. England

Why is it important?

How did we learn about it?

How did it develop?

What does it do?

How do we fix it?

How do we diagnosis problems?


Why is it important how did we learn about it how did it develop what does it do

The Brain

Why is it important?

If you don’t have it you don’t know it.

If you do,you wonder why you don’t have more.


Why is it important how did we learn about it how did it develop what does it do

How did we learn about it?

Genetic Defects

Disease

Stroke

Injury

Surgery

Experimentation


Why is it important how did we learn about it how did it develop what does it do

  • Facts

  • 3 pounds 2500 square centimeters

  • 30 thousand neurons in one pen head

  • Most cells are Neuroglia or Glial in the CNS

    • include astrocytes, microglia, ependymal cells, and oligodendrocytes.

    • two kinds in PNS neuroglia—satellite cells and Schwann cells(neurolemmocytes)

  • White matter is fatty myelinated cells

  • Grey Matter are cell bodies

  • 25% of all blood goes to the brain


Why is it important how did we learn about it how did it develop what does it do

How did it develop?

  • Development during embryo stage

  • Forebrain

    • Telencephalon/Diencephalon

  • Midbrain

    • Mesencephalon

  • Hindbrain

    • Metencephalon/Mylencephalon


Why is it important how did we learn about it how did it develop what does it do

How did it develop”2”

Cerebellum

Hindbrain

Medulla

Pons

CP/CQ

Thalamus

Hypothalamus

Cerebrum

Metecephalon

Brainstem

Mesencephalon

Midbrain

Diencephalon

Forebrain

Telencephalon


Why is it important how did we learn about it how did it develop what does it do

  • OTHER NAMES FOR THE DIVISIONS

    • Brain stem “reptilian brain” controls internal organs heart breathing

    • Limbic “paleomammalian brain” controls basic drives hunger thirst sex, emotions and feelings

    • Cerebrum “neomammalian brain” rational thought creativity decision making


Why is it important how did we learn about it how did it develop what does it do

How Does it work

  • Nervous system PNS and CNS

  • PNS- Nerves outside the Brain and Spinal cord

    • Autonomic

      • Parasympathetic

      • Sympathetic

    • Somatic

      • Efferent Motor

      • Afferent Sensory

  • CNS - Spinal Cord and Brain


Why is it important how did we learn about it how did it develop what does it do

1. They have extreme longevity. Given good nutrition, neurons can function optimally for a lifetime (over 100 years).

2. They are amitotic. As neurons assume their roles as communicating links of the nervous system, they lose their ability to divide. We pay a high price for this neuron feature because they cannot be replaced if destroyed. There are exceptions to this rule. For example, olfactory epithelium and some hippocampal regions contain stem cells that can produce new neurons throughout life. (The hippocampus is a brain region involved in memory.)

3. They have an exceptionally high metabolic rate and require continuous and abundant supplies of oxygen and glucose. Neurons cannot survive for more than a few minutes without oxygen.

Neurons are typically large, complex cells. Although they vary in structure, they all have a cell body from which one or more slender processes project (Figure 11.4). The plasma membrane of neurons is the site of electrical signaling, and it plays a crucial role in cell-to-cell interactions that occur during development.


Why is it important how did we learn about it how did it develop what does it do

Types of Neurons


Why is it important how did we learn about it how did it develop what does it do

HOW CNS RECIEVES INFORMATION

  • Receives impulses from the PNS or cranial nerves every area has its own nerve

  • Impulses transmitted through electrical impulses along nerve fibers dendrites to cell body to axon to axon end plates across synapse to dendrites of next neuron.

    • Called action potential+(K) outside - inside 70MV DIFFERENCE

    • All or none principal


Why is it important how did we learn about it how did it develop what does it do

HOW CNS RECIEVES INFORMATION

  • NUERO TRANSMITTERS STIMULATE NEXT NUERON

  • 50 KNOWN NUERO TRANSMITTERS

    • SOME INHIBITORY SOME EXCITATORY

    • Epinephrine - Acetycholine

    • Melatonin –Dopamine-Serotonin


Why is it important how did we learn about it how did it develop what does it do

Brain Circuitry

  • Reticular Activating system

    • Core tissue of the brainstem and thalamus

      • Discriminates between important and unimportant ideas

  • Limbic system

    • Function is to integrate and direct human drives and emotions


Why is it important how did we learn about it how did it develop what does it do

How does it communicate?

Opposite side control:Right side controls the left side of the body

Right and left sides have different functions

Left controls language and the right hand and analysis

Right controls spatial orientation and musical ability intuition creativity and the unconscious generation of ideas

Both work together to solve complex problems


Why is it important how did we learn about it how did it develop what does it do

Divisions

Cerebrum- 80% of brain mass divided up into lobes

Frontal

Temporal

Parietal

Occipital

Insula


Why is it important how did we learn about it how did it develop what does it do

Divisions 2

Cerebellum-Balance coordination

Thalamus- Sorts information

Hypothalamus- Thermostat/body’s functions

Midbrain

Pons- regulates facial sensations and movement

Medulla Oblongata- heartbeat/ breathing/ digestion


Why is it important how did we learn about it how did it develop what does it do

OTHER

INFORMATION

Cranial Nerves

Vascular system

Cerebral spinal fluid(CSF)

Meninges

Hippocampus(Sea Horse) short memory to long part of the limbic system

Amygdala- Pay attention works with Hippocampus

What happens if you don’?


Why is it important how did we learn about it how did it develop what does it do

OTHER

INFORMATION

Limbic system - Fight or Flight syndrome

Adrenaline Insulin

Glucose goes from brain to Muscles

Blood pressure increases

Digestion stops


Why is it important how did we learn about it how did it develop what does it do

Disorders Classified

I. Neurological

Stroke/MS/lupus//Migraine

II. Neurodegenerative

Alzheimer’s/Huntington/Parkinson's-Lack Dopamine

III. Behavioral/Emotional

Depression Prosaic - Seritonin /Schizophrenia-Too Much Dopamine/Drug addiction

IV. Developmental

Autism/Cerebal- Palsy/Spina Bifida/ Mental Retardation


Why is it important how did we learn about it how did it develop what does it do

Diseases

Multiple Sclerosis (MS)- Inflammation of CNS Myelin AID could be viral Scandinavian /Northern states (4x)

Migraine-Blood vessel constriction/nausea/vision

Parkinson’s -Dopamine Thalamus

Lupus-”Wolf” AID confused with MS causes arthritis/swelling of Hands CNS disorders

Stroke-

Amyloid Plaques-Common in Alzheimer's controlled by taking estrogen


Why is it important how did we learn about it how did it develop what does it do

Nutrition

Fatty foods- Needed for the brain to operate correctly need Linoleic (N-6) and (N-3)

Too much,fatty foods, will cause problems such as stroke/Depression

Use oils canola/soy/walnut/fish/vegetables/seaweed


Why is it important how did we learn about it how did it develop what does it do

The chief monitor and regulator of all the body’s movements is the ?

The brain stem or reptilian brain controls respiration T-F

Damage to the Medulla Oblongata usually results in?

Meylinated axons make up the part of the brain called?

The Three membranes covering the brain are called?

Broccas area controls?

Human growth is controlled in the ?

This lobe responds to sound? Visual? Movement? Touch?


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