Module 6
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MODULE 6. STRUCTURAL FRAMING INSPECTION I. Building Subsystems. structural framing & foundations enclosure systems plumbing lighting acoustics safety systems electric power & signal systems HVAC. Transfer of forces acting on the building.

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Building Subsystems

  • structural framing & foundations

  • enclosure systems

  • plumbing

  • lighting

  • acoustics

  • safety systems

  • electric power & signal systems

  • HVAC

Transfer of forces acting on the building

  • foundation systems are designed to transmit loads from the structural system directly to the ground

    • settlement of the completed building must be within acceptable limits

  • structural systems should be designed to transfer its loads to the foundation

    • its design must be anticipated in the foundation design

Transfer of forces acting on the building

  • most building structural systems consists of

    • floors

    • roof decks

    • horizontal members that support the floor and or roof

    • vertical members that support other components

  • floor and roof decks or beams that support them, are usually on load bearing walls or columns which carry the load downward

  • structural systems must be designed to transmit vertical and horizontal loads to the foundations

Transfer of forces acting on the building

  • vertical walls and columns carry vertical loads downward but

    • acting alone they are inadequate to resist lateral forces

  • to help counteract lateral forces

    • bracing can be implemented into the system

    • beams can be connected to columns to produce a rigid frame to resist lateral movement

    • long walls known as shear walls, in two perpendicular directions act like vertical beams in transmitting forces to foundations


  • the strength of the metal connector plates ( gang plates, truss plates) depends on the

    • grip of the teeth

    • shear and tensile capacity of the steel plates

  • identical truss plates are placed directly opposite each other on opposite faces


  • when a truss is axially loaded, the wood fibers press against the teeth and they transfer the load throughout the remaining un-perforated sections of the plate

  • permanent bracing of a roof truss system is done in the field and must comply with the approved drawings

Principles of wood construction

  • when in tension, wood is strongest parallel to the grain

  • if the cross-sectional area of a wood member is reduced by holes

    • the net area is reduced

    • the stress-concentrating effect must be considered when figuring out allowable loads

  • under constant loads, wood deflection will increase slightly with time

Principles of wood construction

  • wood is very strong when

    • shear is perpendicular to the grain

  • wood is not as strong when

    • shear is parallel to the grain

  • wood is graded by

    • species (type of wood)

    • grade (#1, #2, #3, stud grade)

    • grade-marking agency

    • moisture content

Principles of wood construction

  • wood is a natural insulator

    • 1 ¼” = RSI 0.22 (R 1.25) batt insulation for 1 ¼” has R 3.25

  • wood can be fire rated by being pressure treated with fire-retardant elements

  • wood that is pressure treated for fire or preservative effects do not loose significant strength


  • Perform exercise #1, questions 1 to 23

  • Q 22

  • Summarize the general rules governing stud posts built into walls.

  • Q23

  • What general rules govern floor framing supported on flat insulating concrete form walls?

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