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“Transport of solar wind into Earth’s magnetosphere thorough rolled-up Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices” H. Hasegawa et al. 2004, Nature, 430, 755 “Helioseismic observation of the structure and dynamics of a rotating sunspot beneath the solar surface” J. Zhao & A. G. Kosovichev 2003, ApJ, 591, 446

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H isobe 2004 11 1 taiyo zasshikai

“Transport of solar wind into Earth’s magnetosphere thorough rolled-up Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices”

H. Hasegawa et al. 2004, Nature, 430, 755

“Helioseismic observation of the structure and dynamics of a rotating sunspot beneath the solar surface”

J. Zhao & A. G. Kosovichev 2003, ApJ, 591, 446

“Helioseimic observations of magnetohydrodynamics of the solar interior”

A. Kosovichev in Magnetohydrodynamics of Stellar Interior Cambridge, Sep 6-17, 2004

H. Isobe, 2004/11/1, Taiyo zasshikai


“Transport of solar wind into Earth’s magnetosphere thorough rolled-up Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices”H. Hasegawa, M. Fujimoto, T.-D. Phan, A. Balogh, M. W. Dumlop, C. Hashimoto, R. TanDokoro 2004, Nature, 430, 755


  • The mechanism by which the solar wind enters Earth’s magnetosphere is unknown.

  • Reconnection at the low latitude magnetopause?

  • However, the plasma content in the outer magnetosphere increases during notrhward solar-wind magnetic field conditions, when reconnection is less efficient.

  • Alternative mechanism is associated with nonlinear phase of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability.

  • Here they show the evidence of K-H instability in the in-situ observation.


Cluster mission
Cluster mission magnetosphere is unknown.

Multipoint in situ measurement by four Cluster spacecraft forming a tetrahedron. => Detection of the nonlinear stage of Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices.


Ion energy magnetosphere is unknown.

spectrum

Ion Tempera-ture by C1

Plasma

density

Position of the sattelites

20:42

20:26

magnetopause

solar

wind

  • C1 is inner than C3 and C4

  • Red bar in the 3rd row indicate instances when C1 observed heigher density.

C2?

C1

C4

C3


V magnetosphere is unknown.

B

Synthesized B vector from 3D MHD simulation.

Consistent with K-H origin vortices.


Mixing of wind magnetosphere plasma
Mixing of wind/magnetosphere plasma magnetosphere is unknown.

Black: satellite in the solar wind.

Red: satellite in the magnetosphere.

The double peaks of the red curve indicate the mixing of the solar-wind plasma (<2 keV) and the magnetospheric plasma (>5keV).


Conclution
Conclution magnetosphere is unknown.

  • Evidence of nonlinear development of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability by in situ observation of four Cluster satellites.

  • Also found is the mixing of solar wind and magnetospheric plasma in the K-H regiion.

  • Support the idea that the transport of the solar wind plasma into the magnetosphere is associated with nonlinear K-H.

  • Microscopic process for the plasma transportation is not clear. No signature of local reconnection.


Helioseismic observation of the structure and dynamics of a rotating sunspot beneath the solar surfaceJ. Zhao & A. G. Kosovichev 2003, ApJ, 591, 446

  • Time-dependent (local) helioseismology (data:MDI)

  • Evidence of sub-photospheric twist of rotating sunspots

  • Vortex motion


Noaa 9114 2000 aug 4 12 soho mdi
NOAA 9114, 2000 Aug. 4-12 (SOHO/MDI) rotating sunspot beneath the solar surface

  • The main sunspot rotates rapidly (200° in 3 days).

  • The rotation is clearly visible because of the protruding feature A.

  • Solid line: trace of smaller sunspot (indicated by red arrow).

  • The small sunspot moves arond the main spot and finally merges.


Sound speed variation at the depth of 6mm
Sound speed variation at the depth of 6Mm. rotating sunspot beneath the solar surface

  • Sound speed variation δc/c relative to the quiet sun. Red is positive and blue is negative, raiges from -0.02 - 0.08.

  • Contour: line-of-sight magnetic field (600 - 1600 G)

UT16:20, Aug. 7

UT12:39 Aug. 8

Protruding structure similar to A is also visible at z=6Mm, but forms an angle of 〜45°. Signature of subphotoshpheric twist?


Flow field at z 0 3 top and 9 12 bottom mm
Flow field at z=0-3 (top) and 9-12 (bottom) Mm rotating sunspot beneath the solar surface

  • Color: vertical velocity.

  • Red=0.5 km/s (downward),

  • Blue= -0.1〜0.2 km/s (upward)

  • Arrows: horizontal velocity. Largest arrow is 0.5 km/s.

  • In upper layer (0-3Mm), converging flows with downdraft. Mainly counterclockwise vortex.

  • In deeper layer (9-12 Mm), upward divergent flows. Clockwise vortex.

Aug. 7 Aug. 8


Kinetic helicity v v v 2
Kinetic helicity rotating sunspot beneath the solar surfaceα≡v・(∇×v)/|v|2

  • The vertical component of kinetic helicity, as a possible origin of magnetic twist, is calculated.

  • αz=-1〜-6×10-8 m-1 , which is the same order of magnetude as the typical current helicity (Pevtsov et al. 1995)


Error estimate
Error estimate rotating sunspot beneath the solar surface

Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the error.

Error is larger in vertical velocity near z=4-6Mm.

Effect of umbra has been tested. Qualitatively OK.

horizontal

vertical


Conclusion
Conclusion rotating sunspot beneath the solar surface

  • More than 4Mm below the sunspot, the sound speed is larger than that in the quiet sun (Kosovchev et al. 2000, Sol. Phys.)

  • Distribution of the sound speed variation at z=6Mm shows similar shape of the sunspot at z=0. If the shape of sound speed variation reflect the local structure of flux tube, it is a signature of sub-photospheric twist.

  • Vortex motion below the spot.Kinetic helicity is the same order of magnitude as typical value of magnetic helicity.


Helioseimic observations of magnetohydrodynamics of the solar interiorA. Kosovichev in Magnetohydrodynamics of Stellar Interior Cambridge, Sep 6-17, 2004

The viewgraphs (PPT, PDF etc.) of the conference can be downloaded at:

http://www.newton.cam.ac.uk/programmes/MSI/ws.html


Isaac newton institute for mathematical science
Isaac Newton Institute for mathematical science solar interior

  • The proof of the Fermat’s last theorem was done here in 1993.


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