Chapter 7 Section 2. Convention and Compromise. I. Economic Depression. A. The US went through a depression after the Revolutionary War. The Southern plantations were damaged and could not produce as much rice, rice prices dropped.
Chapter 7 Section 2
Convention and Compromise
I. Economic Depression
A. The US went through a depression after the Revolutionary War.
The Southern plantations were damaged and could not produce as much rice, rice prices dropped.
Farmers couldn’t sell goods-no money to pay taxes-farmers lost land-some were jailed.
Trade fell and money was in short supply
B. Shay’s Rebellion helped troubled farmers. It made it so judges could not seize a farmer’s land.
C. Slavery was a difficult issue that many people and groups were working toward ending.
1. 1774-Quakers-organized first American Antislavery Society
2. 1780-Pennsylvania passed law for gradual freeing of enslaved people.
3. 1783-Massachusetts court ruled slavery illegal.
4. 1784-1804-Conn., RI., NY., and NJ., ended slavery.
5. 1787-the Free African Society in Philadelphia was formed.
D. Virginia passed a law encouraging manumission, (freeing individual enslaved persons.)
E. Slavery divided the country. They realized the Articles of Confederation was too weak to end slavery.
II. A Call for Change
Political leaders were divided about type of government.
1. One group wanted to maintain independent state governments.
2. The other group wanted a strong national government.
B. 1787-Alexander Hamilton proposed a meeting in Philadelphia to discuss the Articles of Confederation.
III. The Constitutional Convention
The Constitutional Convention-May 1787-55 delegates (no Native Americans, African Americans, or women)
James Madison-“Father of the Constitution”
George Washington Presided. The rules were:
1. Each state had 1 vote on all issues
2. A majority vote was needed to finalize decisions.
3. Delegates from at least 7 of 13 states were required for meetings to be held.
4. Delegates met behind closed doors so they could talk freely.
D. Two plans of government were proposed-Virginia Plan & New Jersey Plan
E. Virginia Plan-a two house legislature-a chief executive-a court system
1. The people would elect members of the lower house.
2. The lower house would choose members of the upper house.
3. The number of members of the house would be based on the population of the states.
F. The New Jersey Plan-modified the Articles of Confederation.
1. One house legislature, 1 vote for each state
2. Congress has power to set taxes and regulate trade
3. Congress-elects executive branch w/more than one person
IV. Compromise Wins Out
Decided that revising Articles of Confederation would not fix problems. Decided to revise the Virginia Plan by…
1. How members of Congress were elected.
2. How state representatives would be determined in houses.
3. Whether or not enslaved people are counted for population.
4. Whether or not to ban slavery.
B. The Great Compromise was the result. It said that…
1. A two-house legislature
2. The way to count enslaved people would be with the Three-Fifths Compromise.
C. Congress would not interfere with slave trade until 1808.
D. The Bill of Rights was proposed to protect the new government from abusing its power.
E. September 17-1787-(after 4 months) the delegates met to sign the document.