32 6 micro and macro nutrients
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32.6 Micro and Macro Nutrients PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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32.6 Micro and Macro Nutrients. Robert Dallas, Eric Soper, Alex Elliott, Anna Karlin Block 3. Basic Knowledge. Autotrophs survive and grow on inorganic substances Essential Element- element a plant needs to survive Lack of nutrients cause stunted growth and discolored leaves in plants.

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32.6 Micro and Macro Nutrients

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32.6 Micro and Macro Nutrients

Robert Dallas, Eric Soper, Alex Elliott, Anna Karlin

Block 3


Basic Knowledge

  • Autotrophs survive and grow on inorganic substances

  • Essential Element- element a plant needs to survive

  • Lack of nutrients cause stunted growth and discolored leaves in plants.

  • 17 essential elements


Macro Nutrients

  • C, O, H, N, S, P, K, Ca, Mg

  • Calcium- gives structure to cell walls

  • Potassium- helps with osmosis

  • Magnesium- vital part of chlorophyll


Micro Nutrients

  • Cl, Fe, Mn, B, Zn, Cu, Ni, Molybdenun

  • Micro- only need small amounts to survive

  • For every sixty million atoms of hydrogen, the plant needs one micro nutrient to survive.

  • Micro nutrients help with catalysis


32.8 Fertile Soil Supports Plant Growth

Amber Yeasin

Chloe McMahon

Marleah Campbell

Theresa Bryant


Importance of Soil

  • Quality of soil determines plant’s growth

  • Good soil allows plants to absorb nutrients

  • Bacteria/algae break down a plant’s organic matter


Soil Horizons

  • A Horizon

    • Topsoil is subject to extensive weather

  • B Horizon

    • contains fewer organisms

  • C horizon

    • parent material for upper layers of soil


Cations and Anions

  • Cation exchange is mechanism

    • root hairs take up certain positively charged ions

  • Cations(+) adhere to (-) charged surfaces

  • Cation exchange

    • root hairs release hydrogen ions into soil

  • Anions usually not bound tightly by soil


Cations and Anions


Ions and Soil Fertility

  • Unbound ions drain out soil quickly

  • May take centuries for soil to become fertile

  • Loss of soil fertility = pressing environmental problem


32.9 - Soil conservation is essential to human life

Leah Knobel

Madison Stewart

Scott Rambo

Gurpreet Singh


Ways to save soil

  • Proper irrigation

  • Prevention of erosion

  • Prudent fertilization


Preventing Erosion

Defintion of Erosion: Blowing away or washing away soil

  • Planting trees to block wind

  • Contour planting patterns to catch runoff water


Proper Irrigation

  • Too much irrigation can make the soil salty.

  • Modern irrigation uses perforated pipes that

    drip water slowly closer to the roots, using less water.

    More water is then absorbed by the plant

    = LESS WASTE


Prudent Fertilization

  • Fertilizers contain:

    - nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium

    ex. manure, fish meal, and compost

  • Nutrients must be broken down by bacteria and fungi.

  • Organic fertilizer is slower, but lasts much longer.

  • Inorganic fertilizer attains the nutrients quicker, but the minerals do not last as long. The minerals can runoff and cause pollution.


Organic Soil & Farming

Jonathan Dobson

Lexie Allen

ArgelMoncayo

Jessi Sailer


32.9 Soil Conservation is Essential to Human Life

  • Our survival as a species depends on soil

  • Erosion and chemical pollution threaten this vital resource throughout the world

  • 3 critical goals of soil conservation: proper irrigation, prevention of erosion, prudent fertilization


32.9 continued…

  • Irrigation can make soil salty; too much so for plants to tolerate

  • In order to prevent erosion, farmers can take precautions such as planting rows of trees as wind breaks, terracing hillside crops, and cultivating in a contour pattern can prevent loss of top soil

  • Manure, fish meal, and compost are common fertilizers


32.10 Organic Farmers Follow Principles of Sustainable Growth

  • To be “organic” food must be grown and processed according to strict guidelines by the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture

  • Goal is sustainable agriculture that is conservation minded, environmentally safe, and profitable

  • Meant to sustain biological diversity, maintain soil quality, manage pests with little pesticides, little use of fertilizers, and to avoid genetically modified organisms


32.10 continued…

  • Over 2 million acres are used for organic farming and industry is growing at 20% each year (0.3% of crop land and 2% of food market in U.S.)

  • Ultimate aim is to restore as much to the soil as is drawn from it

  • Protects environment and creates naturally produced foods


32.11Agricultural Research is Improving the Yields and Nutritional Value of Crops


  • 800 million suffered from mal-nutrition

    • 40,000 people (including children) die each day

  • The most limited source for food production is land

    • Human population increases while farmland decreases

  • The commercial adoption by farmers of genetically modified crops has been one of the most rapid advances in the history of agriculture

    • Transgenic crops contain genes from the bacterium (Bacillus-Thuriugiensis)

    • Genes encode for protein which controls a number of serious insect pest

  • Transgenic plants (corns, soybeans, and wheat) are tolerant to a number of herbicides


  • This allows farmers to kill weeds without harming the transgenic plants

    • Researchers are also engineering plants with enhanced resistance to disease

  • Nutritional quality of plants is being improved

  • Gold + Rice = increased qualities of vitamin A

    • E.x.: Different varieties of corn, wheat, and rice that are enriched in protein.

    • Important because protein deficiency is the leading cause of mal-nutrition


32.12 Fungi and Roots

Chris Sharp

Claire Hug

Shawn Blake Benson

Katherine Calhoun


Fungus

  • Plants need large absorptive surface area

    • Root hairs provide this area

  • Plants can absorb more water by teaming with fungi

  • The roots that team with fungi are called Mycorrhiza

    • Mycorrhiza is covered in twisted mat of fungal filaments


Fungus continued

Fungi:

  • Benefits from sugars of the plant

  • Increases absorption surface area

  • Stimulates growth

  • Protects from pathogens in the soil


The Plant

  • Fungus symbiosis was possibly an adaptation that allowed plants to colonize land evidence in fossil record

  • Roots can only transform into Mycorrhiza if exposed to the correct type of fungus

    • If seed drifts to foreign soil, it will not grow


Bacteria

  • Nitrogen fixing bacteria provides a source of ammonium.

  • Infects the plants nodules

  • Plant gives bacteria carbohydrates and other organic compounds

  • Excretion of NH4+ which increases soil fertility


32.15 Plant Parasites and Carnivorous Plants

Jamie Kelly

Logan Riley

Deana Sarkisova

Lauren Scobee


  • Many plants have symbiotic relationships

  • Epiphytes absorb water and minerals from rain

  • Parasites absorb sugars and minerals from their living hosts


  • Some parasites tap into vascular tissue to absorb sugars

  • Certain plants obtain nutrients, nitrogen and minerals by killing insects or small animals

  • They live in soils with poor nitrogen and minerals such as acid bags


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