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32.6 Micro and Macro Nutrients. Robert Dallas, Eric Soper, Alex Elliott, Anna Karlin Block 3. Basic Knowledge. Autotrophs survive and grow on inorganic substances Essential Element- element a plant needs to survive Lack of nutrients cause stunted growth and discolored leaves in plants.

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32.6 Micro and Macro Nutrients

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32 6 micro and macro nutrients

32.6 Micro and Macro Nutrients

Robert Dallas, Eric Soper, Alex Elliott, Anna Karlin

Block 3

Basic knowledge

Basic Knowledge

  • Autotrophs survive and grow on inorganic substances

  • Essential Element- element a plant needs to survive

  • Lack of nutrients cause stunted growth and discolored leaves in plants.

  • 17 essential elements

Macro nutrients

Macro Nutrients

  • C, O, H, N, S, P, K, Ca, Mg

  • Calcium- gives structure to cell walls

  • Potassium- helps with osmosis

  • Magnesium- vital part of chlorophyll

Micro nutrients

Micro Nutrients

  • Cl, Fe, Mn, B, Zn, Cu, Ni, Molybdenun

  • Micro- only need small amounts to survive

  • For every sixty million atoms of hydrogen, the plant needs one micro nutrient to survive.

  • Micro nutrients help with catalysis

32 8 fertile soil supports plant growth

32.8 Fertile Soil Supports Plant Growth

Amber Yeasin

Chloe McMahon

Marleah Campbell

Theresa Bryant

Importance of soil

Importance of Soil

  • Quality of soil determines plant’s growth

  • Good soil allows plants to absorb nutrients

  • Bacteria/algae break down a plant’s organic matter

Soil horizons

Soil Horizons

  • A Horizon

    • Topsoil is subject to extensive weather

  • B Horizon

    • contains fewer organisms

  • C horizon

    • parent material for upper layers of soil

Cations and anions

Cations and Anions

  • Cation exchange is mechanism

    • root hairs take up certain positively charged ions

  • Cations(+) adhere to (-) charged surfaces

  • Cation exchange

    • root hairs release hydrogen ions into soil

  • Anions usually not bound tightly by soil

Cations and anions1

Cations and Anions

Ions and soil fertility

Ions and Soil Fertility

  • Unbound ions drain out soil quickly

  • May take centuries for soil to become fertile

  • Loss of soil fertility = pressing environmental problem

32 9 soil conservation is essential to human life

32.9 - Soil conservation is essential to human life

Leah Knobel

Madison Stewart

Scott Rambo

Gurpreet Singh

Ways to save soil

Ways to save soil

  • Proper irrigation

  • Prevention of erosion

  • Prudent fertilization

Preventing erosion

Preventing Erosion

Defintion of Erosion: Blowing away or washing away soil

  • Planting trees to block wind

  • Contour planting patterns to catch runoff water

Proper irrigation

Proper Irrigation

  • Too much irrigation can make the soil salty.

  • Modern irrigation uses perforated pipes that

    drip water slowly closer to the roots, using less water.

    More water is then absorbed by the plant


Prudent fertilization

Prudent Fertilization

  • Fertilizers contain:

    - nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium

    ex. manure, fish meal, and compost

  • Nutrients must be broken down by bacteria and fungi.

  • Organic fertilizer is slower, but lasts much longer.

  • Inorganic fertilizer attains the nutrients quicker, but the minerals do not last as long. The minerals can runoff and cause pollution.

Organic soil farming

Organic Soil & Farming

Jonathan Dobson

Lexie Allen


Jessi Sailer

32 9 soil conservation is essential to human life1

32.9 Soil Conservation is Essential to Human Life

  • Our survival as a species depends on soil

  • Erosion and chemical pollution threaten this vital resource throughout the world

  • 3 critical goals of soil conservation: proper irrigation, prevention of erosion, prudent fertilization

32 9 continued

32.9 continued…

  • Irrigation can make soil salty; too much so for plants to tolerate

  • In order to prevent erosion, farmers can take precautions such as planting rows of trees as wind breaks, terracing hillside crops, and cultivating in a contour pattern can prevent loss of top soil

  • Manure, fish meal, and compost are common fertilizers

32 10 organic farmers follow principles of sustainable growth

32.10 Organic Farmers Follow Principles of Sustainable Growth

  • To be “organic” food must be grown and processed according to strict guidelines by the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture

  • Goal is sustainable agriculture that is conservation minded, environmentally safe, and profitable

  • Meant to sustain biological diversity, maintain soil quality, manage pests with little pesticides, little use of fertilizers, and to avoid genetically modified organisms

32 10 continued

32.10 continued…

  • Over 2 million acres are used for organic farming and industry is growing at 20% each year (0.3% of crop land and 2% of food market in U.S.)

  • Ultimate aim is to restore as much to the soil as is drawn from it

  • Protects environment and creates naturally produced foods

32 11agricultural research is improving the yields and nutritional value of crops

32.11Agricultural Research is Improving the Yields and Nutritional Value of Crops

32 6 micro and macro nutrients

  • 800 million suffered from mal-nutrition

    • 40,000 people (including children) die each day

  • The most limited source for food production is land

    • Human population increases while farmland decreases

  • The commercial adoption by farmers of genetically modified crops has been one of the most rapid advances in the history of agriculture

    • Transgenic crops contain genes from the bacterium (Bacillus-Thuriugiensis)

    • Genes encode for protein which controls a number of serious insect pest

  • Transgenic plants (corns, soybeans, and wheat) are tolerant to a number of herbicides

32 6 micro and macro nutrients

  • This allows farmers to kill weeds without harming the transgenic plants

    • Researchers are also engineering plants with enhanced resistance to disease

  • Nutritional quality of plants is being improved

  • Gold + Rice = increased qualities of vitamin A

    • E.x.: Different varieties of corn, wheat, and rice that are enriched in protein.

    • Important because protein deficiency is the leading cause of mal-nutrition

32 12 fungi and roots

32.12 Fungi and Roots

Chris Sharp

Claire Hug

Shawn Blake Benson

Katherine Calhoun



  • Plants need large absorptive surface area

    • Root hairs provide this area

  • Plants can absorb more water by teaming with fungi

  • The roots that team with fungi are called Mycorrhiza

    • Mycorrhiza is covered in twisted mat of fungal filaments

Fungus continued

Fungus continued


  • Benefits from sugars of the plant

  • Increases absorption surface area

  • Stimulates growth

  • Protects from pathogens in the soil

The plant

The Plant

  • Fungus symbiosis was possibly an adaptation that allowed plants to colonize land evidence in fossil record

  • Roots can only transform into Mycorrhiza if exposed to the correct type of fungus

    • If seed drifts to foreign soil, it will not grow



  • Nitrogen fixing bacteria provides a source of ammonium.

  • Infects the plants nodules

  • Plant gives bacteria carbohydrates and other organic compounds

  • Excretion of NH4+ which increases soil fertility

32 15 plant parasites and carnivorous plants

32.15 Plant Parasites and Carnivorous Plants

Jamie Kelly

Logan Riley

Deana Sarkisova

Lauren Scobee

32 6 micro and macro nutrients

  • Many plants have symbiotic relationships

  • Epiphytes absorb water and minerals from rain

  • Parasites absorb sugars and minerals from their living hosts

32 6 micro and macro nutrients

  • Some parasites tap into vascular tissue to absorb sugars

  • Certain plants obtain nutrients, nitrogen and minerals by killing insects or small animals

  • They live in soils with poor nitrogen and minerals such as acid bags

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