Scrolls from the judean desert x:Wrï yKi² #yciê lbe(n"å ‘rycix' vbeÛy" '/>
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Scrolls from the Judean Desert. By Dr. William Barrick Master’s Seminary. Introduction. DSS provide vital information: Judaism (300 B.C. – A.D. 135) Text of the Old Testament Discovered 1947-48 Publication of finds took over 50 years. Muhammad ed Dhib (“The Wolf”).

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Scrolls from the judean desert

Scrollsfrom the Judean Desert

By Dr. William Barrick

Master’s Seminary


Introduction

Introduction

  • DSS provide vital information:

    • Judaism (300 B.C.–A.D. 135)

    • Text of the Old Testament

  • Discovered 1947-48

  • Publication of finds took over 50 years.

Muhammad ed Dhib (“The Wolf”)


Scrolls fragments

Scrolls & Fragments

  • 3 Languages: Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek


Scrolls fragments1

Scrolls & Fragments

  • 3 Languages: Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek

  • 9 Sites: Qumran, Masada, Nahial Hiever, Wadi Murabba‘at


Scrolls from the judean desert

Ancient scrolls in jars near Jericho (3rd and 8th centuries A.D.)

Essene community; 11 nearby caves

Jewish suicide pact in the face of the Roman army


Scrolls from the judean desert

Sites of Manuscript Discoveries around the Dead Sea

214+


Qumran caves

Copper (Treasure) Scroll

Qumran Caves

Psalms Scroll and Temple Scroll

Isaiah Scrolls, Habakkuk Commentary, “Rules” Scroll, War Scroll, Thanksgiving Hymns

Amos, Damascus Document

Song of Songs

Greek Texts Only

140 Biblical Scrolls


Scrolls fragments2

Scrolls & Fragments

  • 3 Languages: Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek

  • 9 Sites: Qumran, Masada, Nahial Hiever, Wadi Murabba‘at

  • 900 different texts


Scrolls fragments3

Scrolls & Fragments

  • 3 Languages: Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek

  • 9 Sites: Qumran, Masada, Nahial Hiever, Wadi Murabba‘at

  • 900 different texts

  • Thousands of fragments

1Q22 (1QDM) The Words of Moses


Qumran scrolls

Qumran Scrolls

  • Psalms36

  • Deuteronomy30

  • Isaiah21

  • Genesis19

  • Esther absent

  • Nehemiah?


Qumr an pentateuch scr olls

QumranPentateuch Scrolls

  • Genesis19

  • Exodus17

  • Leviticus13

  • Numbers 7

  • Deuteronomy30


Hebrew scripts

Hebrew Scripts

  • Paleo-Hebrew Script = Phoenician

  • Jewish Script = Square Script = Aramaic

h w h y

h w h y


Verse by verse commentary

1QpHab

rvp

“The interpretation of the passage is that God will not

destroy his people by the hand of the nations, but into

the hand of his chosen ones God will give the judgment

of all the nations. …”

Verse by Verse Commentary

Habakkuk Commentary from Qumran Cave 1

Habakkuk 1-2


Great isaiah scroll

Great Isaiah Scroll

  • Longest of the DSS scrolls

  • Full text of Isaiah

col. liv

col. liii

1QIsa


Scrolls from the judean desert

Qumran manuscripts spell daom. as: dam, hdam, dwam, hdawm, and hdwm

1QIsa col. xliv

^yl,[' = hkyl[

`dao)m. Hb;Þg"w> aF'²nIw> ~Wrôy" yDI_b.[; lyKiÞf.y: hNEïhi

1st Isaiah scroll found in Qumran Cave 1

Isaiah

52:13-54:4

St. Mark’s

Monastery

Isaiah Scroll


Scrolls from the judean desert

hb'v.n"å hw"ßhy> x:Wrï yKi² #yciê lbe(n"å ‘rycix' vbeÛy"

#yci_ lbe(n"å ryciÞx' vbeîy" `~['(h' ryciÞx' !kEïa' AB+ s `~l'(A[l. ~Wqïy" WnyheÞl{a/-rb;d>W

1QIsa (Isaiah 40:6-20)


Scrolls from the judean desert

Types of Differences Between 1QIsb and Codex Leningrad B19A

Orthography107

Addition of conjunctive waw 16

Lack of conjunctive waw 13

Article (addition/omission) 4

Differences in consonants 10

Missing letters 5

Differences in number 14

Differences in pronouns 6

Different grammatical forms 24

Different prepositions 9

Different words 11

Omission of words 5

Addition of words 6

Different sequence 4


Examples of differences

Examples of Differences

  • Isaiah 6:3

    • MT: “holy, holy, holy”; Q: “holy, holy”

  • Isaiah 12:4

    • MT: “you (pl.) will say”; Q: “you (sing.) …”

  • Isaiah 37:25

    • MT: “waters”; Q: “strange waters” (2 Kgs 19:24)

  • Isaiah 53:11

    • MT: “he shall see”; Q: “he shall see light”


Scrolls from the judean desert

4QpaleoLev

larfy

7:34

wynb

7:35

rva

7:36

wy

ynb

Paleo-Hebrew Manuscript of Leviticus

from Qumran Cave 4


Psalms 93 150 8 noncanonical psalms

11QPsa

1st Psalms scroll found in Qumran Cave 11

xvii

xvi

xv

xviii

136:26; 118:1, 15-16, 8-9, 29; 145:1-7

Psalms 93-150 + 8 Noncanonical Psalms

135:17-21; 136:1-16

154:3-19

145:13-21+

No Poetic Format

Different Order


Scrolls from the judean desert

Textual Status of the 210+ Biblical Texts from Qumran

Written in Qumran Practice20%

May have used proto-Masoretic texts.

Proto-Masoretic Texts [60%]35%

Pre-Samaritan Texts 5%

Septuagintal Affinity Texts 5%

Non-aligned Texts [15%]35%

Sometimes agree significantly with Masoretic Text.


Scrolls from the judean desert

Qumran’s 210+ Biblical Texts

Qumran Practice

Non- Aligned

MT 35%

Samaritan Pentateuch

LXX 5%


Scrolls from the judean desert

HILLS of MOAB

QUMRAN

DEAD SEA

CAVE 4

WADI QUMRAN


Khirbet qumran

Khirbet Qumran


Archaeological debate

Archaeological Debate

Scriptorium?

Inkwells


Dss new testament

DSS & New Testament

  • All fragments in Cave 7 are Greek.

  • Some: Book of Enoch.

7Q5 “Mark” Fragment?


Zechariah scroll fragment found in nahal hever cave

Zechariah scroll fragment found in Nahal Hiever Cave

8HievXIIgr

Zechariah scroll fragment found in Nahal Hever cave

as Hamath also [which borders on i]t, Tyre and Si[don, though th]ey are very wise

Zech 9:2


Masada

MASADA

Herod’s Palace on the North End of Masada


Ot textual evidence

ORIGINAL HEBREW TEXT

Before 400 B.C.

SAMARITAN PENTATEUCH

OT Textual Evidence

400-100 B.C.

Before 1947, 1250-Year Gap between Hebrew Texts

DEAD SEA SCROLLS

300 B.C.-A.D. 50

250-150 B.C.

SEPTUAGINT

SYRIAC PESHITTA

A.D. 125-400

HEXAPLA

A.D. 230

LATIN VULGATE

A.D. 390-404

OLDEST HEBREW MANUSCRIPT

A.D. 850


Publications

Publications


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