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Scrolls from the Judean Desert. By Dr. William Barrick Master’s Seminary. Introduction. DSS provide vital information: Judaism (300 B.C. – A.D. 135) Text of the Old Testament Discovered 1947-48 Publication of finds took over 50 years. Muhammad ed Dhib (“The Wolf”).

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Scrolls from the judean desert

Scrollsfrom the Judean Desert

By Dr. William Barrick

Master’s Seminary


Introduction
Introduction

  • DSS provide vital information:

    • Judaism (300 B.C.–A.D. 135)

    • Text of the Old Testament

  • Discovered 1947-48

  • Publication of finds took over 50 years.

Muhammad ed Dhib (“The Wolf”)


Scrolls fragments
Scrolls & Fragments

  • 3 Languages: Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek


Scrolls fragments1
Scrolls & Fragments

  • 3 Languages: Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek

  • 9 Sites: Qumran, Masada, Nahial Hiever, Wadi Murabba‘at


Ancient scrolls in jars near Jericho (3rd and 8th centuries A.D.)

Essene community; 11 nearby caves

Jewish suicide pact in the face of the Roman army



Qumran caves

Copper (Treasure) Scroll A.D.)

Qumran Caves

Psalms Scroll and Temple Scroll

Isaiah Scrolls, Habakkuk Commentary, “Rules” Scroll, War Scroll, Thanksgiving Hymns

Amos, Damascus Document

Song of Songs

Greek Texts Only

140 Biblical Scrolls


Scrolls fragments2
Scrolls & Fragments A.D.)

  • 3 Languages: Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek

  • 9 Sites: Qumran, Masada, Nahial Hiever, Wadi Murabba‘at

  • 900 different texts


Scrolls fragments3
Scrolls & Fragments A.D.)

  • 3 Languages: Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek

  • 9 Sites: Qumran, Masada, Nahial Hiever, Wadi Murabba‘at

  • 900 different texts

  • Thousands of fragments

1Q22 (1QDM) The Words of Moses


Qumran scrolls
Qumran Scrolls A.D.)

  • Psalms 36

  • Deuteronomy 30

  • Isaiah 21

  • Genesis 19

  • Esther absent

  • Nehemiah?


Qumr an pentateuch scr olls
Qumr A.D.)anPentateuch Scrolls

  • Genesis 19

  • Exodus 17

  • Leviticus 13

  • Numbers 7

  • Deuteronomy 30


Hebrew scripts
Hebrew Scripts A.D.)

  • Paleo-Hebrew Script = Phoenician

  • Jewish Script = Square Script = Aramaic

h w h y

h w h y


Verse by verse commentary

1QpHab A.D.)

rvp

“The interpretation of the passage is that God will not

destroy his people by the hand of the nations, but into

the hand of his chosen ones God will give the judgment

of all the nations. …”

Verse by Verse Commentary

Habakkuk Commentary from Qumran Cave 1

Habakkuk 1-2


Great isaiah scroll
Great Isaiah Scroll A.D.)

  • Longest of the DSS scrolls

  • Full text of Isaiah

col. liv

col. liii

1QIsa


Qumran manuscripts spell A.D.)daom. as: dam, hdam, dwam, hdawm, and hdwm

1QIsa col. xliv

^yl,[' = hkyl[

`dao)m. Hb;Þg"w> aF'²nIw> ~Wrôy" yDI_b.[; lyKiÞf.y: hNEïhi

1st Isaiah scroll found in Qumran Cave 1

Isaiah

52:13-54:4

St. Mark’s

Monastery

Isaiah Scroll


hb'v.n"å hw"ßhy> x:Wrï yKi² #yciê lbe(n"å ‘rycix' vbeÛy"

#yci_ lbe(n"å ryciÞx' vbeîy" `~['(h' ryciÞx' !kEïa' AB+ s `~l'(A[l. ~Wqïy" WnyheÞl{a/-rb;d>W

1QIsa (Isaiah 40:6-20)


Types of Differences Between 1QIs vbeÛy"b and Codex Leningrad B19A

Orthography 107

Addition of conjunctive waw 16

Lack of conjunctive waw 13

Article (addition/omission) 4

Differences in consonants 10

Missing letters 5

Differences in number 14

Differences in pronouns 6

Different grammatical forms 24

Different prepositions 9

Different words 11

Omission of words 5

Addition of words 6

Different sequence 4


Examples of differences
Examples of Differences vbeÛy"

  • Isaiah 6:3

    • MT: “holy, holy, holy”; Q: “holy, holy”

  • Isaiah 12:4

    • MT: “you (pl.) will say”; Q: “you (sing.) …”

  • Isaiah 37:25

    • MT: “waters”; Q: “strange waters” (2 Kgs 19:24)

  • Isaiah 53:11

    • MT: “he shall see”; Q: “he shall see light”


4QpaleoLev vbeÛy"

larfy

7:34

wynb

7:35

rva

7:36

wy

ynb

Paleo-Hebrew Manuscript of Leviticus

from Qumran Cave 4


Psalms 93 150 8 noncanonical psalms

11QPs vbeÛy"a

1st Psalms scroll found in Qumran Cave 11

xvii

xvi

xv

xviii

136:26; 118:1, 15-16, 8-9, 29; 145:1-7

Psalms 93-150 + 8 Noncanonical Psalms

135:17-21; 136:1-16

154:3-19

145:13-21+

No Poetic Format

Different Order


Textual Status of the 210+ Biblical Texts from Qumran vbeÛy"

Written in Qumran Practice 20%

May have used proto-Masoretic texts.

Proto-Masoretic Texts [60%] 35%

Pre-Samaritan Texts 5%

Septuagintal Affinity Texts 5%

Non-aligned Texts [15%] 35%

Sometimes agree significantly with Masoretic Text.


Qumran’s 210+ Biblical Texts vbeÛy"

Qumran Practice

Non- Aligned

MT 35%

Samaritan Pentateuch

LXX 5%


HILLS of MOAB vbeÛy"

QUMRAN

DEAD SEA

CAVE 4

WADI QUMRAN



Archaeological debate
Archaeological Debate vbeÛy"

Scriptorium?

Inkwells


Dss new testament
DSS & New Testament vbeÛy"

  • All fragments in Cave 7 are Greek.

  • Some: Book of Enoch.

7Q5 “Mark” Fragment?


Zechariah scroll fragment found in nahal hever cave

Zechariah scroll fragment found in Nahal H vbeÛy"iever Cave

8HievXIIgr

Zechariah scroll fragment found in Nahal Hever cave

as Hamath also [which borders on i]t, Tyre and Si[don, though th]ey are very wise

Zech 9:2


Masada
MASADA vbeÛy"

Herod’s Palace on the North End of Masada


Ot textual evidence

ORIGINAL HEBREW TEXT vbeÛy"

Before 400 B.C.

SAMARITAN PENTATEUCH

OT Textual Evidence

400-100 B.C.

Before 1947, 1250-Year Gap between Hebrew Texts

DEAD SEA SCROLLS

300 B.C.-A.D. 50

250-150 B.C.

SEPTUAGINT

SYRIAC PESHITTA

A.D. 125-400

HEXAPLA

A.D. 230

LATIN VULGATE

A.D. 390-404

OLDEST HEBREW MANUSCRIPT

A.D. 850


Publications
Publications vbeÛy"


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