The Relationship between Human Eyes and Camera Lenses. IB Chemistry SL Ellin Ueno . The Overview of Biochemical Path Way involved in Retina. Three primary cells in retina are called rod cell , transducin , and phosphodiesterase . In rod cell, there is a pigmentary cell called rhodopsin.
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IB Chemistry SL
Design eye and camera lens
Independent Variable: wavelengths of the light
Dependent Variable: the boiling point of the product
the distance between the light source and the beaker that contains 11-cis-retinal (aq)
the time of the emission of the light (wavelength)
the orientation of the distillation tower
the amount of 11-cis-retinal used
the darkness of the room.
CAUTION: The laboratory must be darkened.
Melting point and boiling point of the isomers.
Trans: eye and camera lens
The image on the left side is trans.
It has hydrogen molecules (pink circles) on opposite sides of the double bond.
Trans is a prefix, meaning "across" or "on the opposite side".
The prefix of the name explains the structure of the isomers.
one on the right is cis.
cis-structure has hydrogen molecules on the same side of the double bond.
The word cis is a prefix, meaning "on the same side"Cis and Trans Structure
The molecule changes from cis - structure to trans - structure.
This is the result of trigonal planar bonding, 120° bond angles, about the double bonds.
Energy from light is necessary for this process: absorption of a photon changes the structure.
upper side (green side): partial negative charge
lower side (white side): partial positive charge.
Therefore, this cis isomer molecule is polar.
Trans isomer still carries polar bonds but the molecule itself is non-polar.