The Relationship between Human Eyes and Camera Lenses. IB Chemistry SL Ellin Ueno . The Overview of Biochemical Path Way involved in Retina. Three primary cells in retina are called rod cell , transducin , and phosphodiesterase . In rod cell, there is a pigmentary cell called rhodopsin.
IB Chemistry SL
Independent Variable: wavelengths of the light
Dependent Variable: the boiling point of the product
the distance between the light source and the beaker that contains 11-cis-retinal (aq)
the time of the emission of the light (wavelength)
the orientation of the distillation tower
the amount of 11-cis-retinal used
the darkness of the room.
CAUTION: The laboratory must be darkened.
Melting point and boiling point of the isomers.
The image on the left side is trans.
It has hydrogen molecules (pink circles) on opposite sides of the double bond.
Trans is a prefix, meaning "across" or "on the opposite side".
The prefix of the name explains the structure of the isomers.
one on the right is cis.
cis-structure has hydrogen molecules on the same side of the double bond.
The word cis is a prefix, meaning "on the same side"Cis and Trans Structure
The molecule changes from cis - structure to trans - structure.
This is the result of trigonal planar bonding, 120° bond angles, about the double bonds.
Energy from light is necessary for this process: absorption of a photon changes the structure.
upper side (green side): partial negative charge
lower side (white side): partial positive charge.
Therefore, this cis isomer molecule is polar.
Trans isomer still carries polar bonds but the molecule itself is non-polar.