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Design and Implementation of VLSI Systems (EN1600) Lecture 16: Interconnects & Wire Engineering. Prof. Sherief Reda Division of Engineering, Brown University Spring 2008. [sources: Weste/Addison Wesley – Rabaey/Pearson]. A capacitor does not like to change its voltage instantaneously.

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Design and Implementation of VLSI Systems

(EN1600)

Lecture 16: Interconnects & Wire Engineering

Prof. Sherief Reda

Division of Engineering, Brown University

Spring 2008

[sources: Weste/Addison Wesley – Rabaey/Pearson]


Interconnects introduce cross talk

A capacitor does not like to change its voltage instantaneously.

A wire has high capacitance to its neighbor.

When the neighbor switches from 1→ 0 or 0 →1, the wire tends to switch too.

Called capacitive coupling or crosstalk.

Crosstalk has two harmful effects:

Increased delay on switching wires

Noise on nonswitching wires

Interconnects introduce cross talk


1 crosstalk impacts delay

Assume layers above and below on average are quiet instantaneously.

Second terminal of capacitor can be ignored

Model as Cgnd = Ctop + Cbot

Effective Cadj depends on behavior of neighbors

Miller effect

1. Crosstalk impacts delay


2 crosstalk also creates noise

Crosstalk causes noise on nonswitching wires instantaneously.

If victim is floating:

model as capacitive voltage divider

2.Crosstalk also creates noise


Crosstalk noise effects

Usually victim is driven by a gate that fights noise instantaneously.

Noise depends on relative resistances

Victim driver is in linear region, agg. in saturation

If sizes are same, aggressor = 2-4 x Rvictim

Crosstalk noise effects

(time constant depends on the ratio of time constant of aggressor and victim)


Simulating noise induced by coupling
Simulating noise induced by coupling instantaneously.

  • Noise is less than the noise margin → nothing happens

  • Static CMOS logic will eventually settle to correct output even if disturbed by large noise spikes

    • But glitches cause extra delay and power

  • Large driver oppose the coupling sooner → smaller noise

  • Memories are more sensitive


Wire engineering

Goal: achieve delay, area, power goals with acceptable noise instantaneously.

Possible solutions:

1. Width, Spacing, Layer

2. Shielding

3. Repeater insertion

4. Wire staggering and differential signaling

Wire Engineering


1 2 width spacing layer shielding
1/2. Width, Spacing, Layer, Shielding instantaneously.

  • Widening a wire reduces resistance but increases capacitance (but less proportionally) → RC delay product improves

  • Spacing reduces capacitance → improves RC delay

  • Layers

  • Coupling can be avoided if adjacent lines do not switch → shield critical nets with power or ground wires on one or both sides to eliminate coupling


3 repeater insertion

R and C are proportional to instantaneously.l

RC delay is proportional to l2

Unacceptably great for long wires

Break long wires into N shorter segments

Drive each one with a repeater or buffer

buffer/repeater

3. Repeater insertion

source

sink

  • Two questions:

  • What is the position that minimizes the delay?

  • How many repeaters to insert to minimize the delay?



A if you have one repeater where is the optimal position to insert it
A. If you have one repeater, where is the optimal position to insert it?

source

L

sink

x

buffer

Minimum delay is attained when

Makes sense to add a buffer only if D0-D1 > 0


A if there are multiple buffers where are the optimal locations to insert them
A. If there are multiple buffers, where are the optimal locations to insert them?

source

L

sink

L/2

L/2

If Rbuf = Rsnk and Csnk = Cbuf

then the optimal location for the buffer is at distance L/2

If there are N buffers then minimum delay will occur when they are equally spaced, i.e., separation distance is L/(N+1)


B what is the optimal number n of repeaters
B. What is the optimal number locations to insert them? N of repeaters?

source

buffer


4 staggering and differential signaling
4. Staggering and differential signaling locations to insert them?

staggering

differential signaling


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