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Representations of Youth Theories. By Ellie Beazley. Giroux (1997). Giroux theory Media representations youths = ‘Empty category’ DUE to media = ADULTS (No teenagers) Means – DOES NOT reflect reality of teenagers. Representation of youth

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By ellie beazley

Representations of Youth

Theories

By Ellie Beazley


Giroux 1997

Giroux (1997)

  • Giroux theory

  • Media representations youths = ‘Empty category’

  • DUE to media = ADULTS (No teenagers)

  • Means – DOES NOT reflect reality of teenagers

Representation of youth

 Giroux views show how the youth are mistreated within the media. Describing them as an ‘Empty category’ explains that adults do not really understand what it is like to be a youth in this generation. Therefore they just plonk their own ideas into this empty space of what they believe the representation of youth it.

The role of media representations in society

By looking at this theory we are able to see that the representation of youth is moulded together through what adults believe and think. Thus then would lead to uprising of stereotypes through the media and also cause moral panics of youths. When all of this has just been created through hegemony and the media raining down their ideas onto the adults

Effects of these representations

 Media involving just adults therefore greatly effects these representations. The adults do not want their generation to look bad therefore use teenagers as a scapegoat to place the blame on.


Acland 1995

Acland (1995)

  • Acland theory

  • Media representations – Delinquent youths = enhance hegemony

  • Done by ideal of ‘NORM’ adult and youth behaviour = Contrasts deviant youth behaviour = Unacceptable

  • Representation of youth

  • Media representations of young people = allows state to control them (EG ASBOs)

  • This is known as ‘Ideology of protection’  Idea that youths need to be CONTANTLY watched

  • = Youth is the time where they learn about social roles/values  State needs to confirm these values

The role of media representations in society

By looking at this theory we are able to see that adults believe that it is necessary to show youths in such a disastrous way. This is so they can tell youths how to act an how not to act so they can enforce middle class hegemony.

Effects of these representations

 This therefore effects the representations as the adults see youths as all being reckless and they have to keep enforcing that these actions are bad. This is to enforce the hegemony of how the should not behave when I comes to adulthood. This means that there will be more negative stories in the media


Hebdige 1979

Hebdige (1979)

Representation of youth

Hebdige argues that the representation of youths is VERY limited  Either shown as Trouble or fun there is no inbetween.

 Suggest media representation of youths in NOT REALITY

  • Hebdige theory

  • Studies British youth subcultures (Late 1970’s)

  • Focused on the reality of youth cultures.

  • Subcultures = Youths to express themselves and to challenge hegemony (Mostly through style)

Effects of these representations

 Therefore this would effect the representation of youths dramatically. Due to them either being shown in two different ways of being trouble or having fun in the media it suggest that we never get to see the good and hard working teens of society who just fade into the background (Being seen by the media as boring)

The role of media representations in society

By looking at this theory we are able to see that the media in society tends to ignore the good and the hard working and focuses on the fun and the trouble. This therefore makes adults believe that all Youths behave in this manner.


Cohen 1972

Cohen (1972)

Representation of youth

 The effect of the moral panic is to reinforce hegemony by the media making it clear what values society do not accept. This shows that when youths try to express themselves in a way that adults have not seen before they try stop it by showing it as a negative aspect

  • Cohen theory

  • Studied media response to mods and rockers riots (60’s)

  • Time ‘Folk devils’ emerge in society  Reflect anxieties at the time

  • = Causing a moral panic to occur

The role of media representations in society

By looking at this theory we are able to see that the media places the blame onto the youths seeing them as an easy target. This causes the moral panic cycle to happen in order to stamp down hard onto anything that youths try to do that is out of the norms.

Effects of these representations

 Therefore this would effect the representation of youths as it shows that they are not allowed to express themselves within a different way that society does not see as acceptable. Therefore this places a more negative effect on the youths as everything they do out of the norms of society is seen as bad.


Gramsci

Gramsci

Representation of youth

Therefore other social groups/classed ACCEPT these values and class these as a normal way of life. This meaning that lowe social classes will always be shown as negative as they are unable to have the same lifestyle as middle class people.

Gramsci theory

Developed concept of cultural hegemony  Social class (Middle class) dominate society by: Their life = Normal, natural and common sense.

The role of media representations in society

By looking at this theory we are able to see that the media always still with the hegemony of the higher classes as these are seen as more acceptable. Also that they do not take into consideration how other people live within society

Effects of these representations

 This would effect representations as all representations of youth will always be contrasted with middle class youths. Thus meaning that if the lower class youths are not living up to the standard of the middle class youths then they will always be looked down upon within society


Greg philo

Greg Philo

Representation of youth

 This shows that anyone under middle class is inserted into this ‘Hoodie cinema’ which is basically summing up that in all films that if you are not middle class then you are a thug in a hoodie.

Greg Philo theory

Argues that  Contemporary ‘Hoodie cinema’ reflects middle class anxiety about the threat of the working class

The role of media representations in society

By looking at this theory we are able to tell that the media link social classes with strong stereotypes. With the middle class being the ideal person and anyone lower than this being a hooligan.

Effects of these representations

Therefore this would effects working class youths as by everyone else they would be seen as thugs and upper class people would be more threatened of them. Also it would be harder for them to make something of their life if they believe that they will always be linked with the ‘hoodie cinema’ idea.


Gerbner cultivation theory

Gerbner – Cultivation theory

Representation of youth

 This shows that youth are always the victims of being involved within crime throughout many media platforms. This therefore would give people the perception that youths do all the crime thus making them being represented badly.

Gerbner – Cultivation theory

Studied effect of television  Perception of crime.

Found  Watched loads of TV = Overestimate crime (Mean world syndrome)

News reports/TV dramas/ films = Lots of crime = influence perception of world

(CULTIVATION THEORY)

The role of media representations in society

By looking at this theory we are able to tell that representation is closely linked to what we see on the television. These then cause peoples perceptions to change on representations depends on what has been shown on the television.

Effects of these representations

Therefore this would effect the representation of youths by automatically giving them a bad name no matter what they are like. This is because of all these programmes indoctrinating the public to place the blame onto teens automatically


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