Geoengineering. Can we fix things while doing as we do now? 1. Dispose of CO 2 (CCS or to the ocean depths) 2. Change the earth’s albedo. Sources:. R. Socolow , Scientific American, July 2005 Special section, Science 25 Sept. 2009. CCS=Carbon Capture and Sequestration.
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Can we fix things while doing as we do now?
1. Dispose of CO2 (CCS or to the ocean depths)
2. Change the earth’s albedo.
R. Socolow, Scientific American, July 2005
Special section, Science 25 Sept. 2009
CCS=Carbon Capture and Sequestration
Capture CO2 into some chemical from the exhaust stream of power plants
Release this CO2 into a pure stream
Compress or liquify it
Pump it deep into permeable or porous deposits, under impermeable cap rock
Or, into deep brines
Demonstration ‘clean coal’ plant, high efficiency, CCS, making hydrogen.
Mattoon IL, 2003, 275MWe, cost $1.8B
75% federal, 25% private
CCS 1 million tons of CO2/year for four years
Cancelled 2008, perhaps back to life
= 1.8 billion tons of CO2/year
Lake Nyos, Cameroon, 1986
Naturally sequestered volcanic CO2 burst out, killing 1700 people, all animals within 25 km radius
Drawbacks to CCS
Only about 15% CO2
The technology, cost to capture.
How to deal with small sources.
The scale of the problem
Iron fertilization of the oceans
Iron in the water is the limit to open ocean life.
Add iron, plankton bloom, die, sink.
Visible from orbit.
Increase atmospheric albedo, reflect sunlight
Natural experiment, Mt. Pinatubo
SO2sulfuric acid, nucleates water into clouds
Source of all that heat energy?
Internal radioactivity, uranium, thorium 40K
Akin to meltdown of TMI core.
Cooling or melting?
Change the solar constant
Must keep the albedo high
New York Times Magazine
April 11 2010
Building a Green Economy