Emergence of industrial society in the west
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Emergence of Industrial Society in the West. 1750-1914. Agenda. Schedule Chapter 23 Quiz and Collect Reading Outline Notes Source Work/Exam Review Packet Homework- Chapter 24 Reading Outline and Tea Quiz (1/15 and 1/16). Human Interactions and Environment. Demography and Disease .

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Emergence of Industrial Society in the West

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Emergence of Industrial Society in the West

1750-1914


Agenda

Schedule

Chapter 23 Quiz and Collect Reading Outline

Notes

Source Work/Exam Review Packet

Homework- Chapter 24 Reading Outline and Tea Quiz (1/15 and 1/16)


Human Interactions and Environment

Demography and Disease

Migration

Australia’s colonies began in 1788 when a ship dropped convicts off at penal settlement in Sydney.

British sent colonists to New Zealand in the early 1800’s.

  • Western Europe experienced population growth by 50% after 1730

    • Caused by efficient government

    • Reduced movement of diesease bearing animals

    • Better nutrition- ex. potato

    • By 1900, lower death rates among children younger than 10


Settlement of Australia and New Zealand


Human Interactions and Environment

Patterns of Settlement

  • Europeans move into Africa and Asia competing for colonies starting in the 1860’s.

Patterns of Settlement

  • The British

    • By 1840, Australia had 140,000 European inhabitants, who became prosperous sheep herders, providing wool for British industries

    • Took control of New Zealand by 1840.


Human Interactions and Environment

Technology

  • Development of railroads and canals linked cities in Europe and contributed to urbanization and industrialization.

  • The steamship helped Europe to travel far distances faster and to places never reached before such as interior of Africa.


Cultural Development and Interactions

Religions

  • British move missionaries into New Zealand.

  • During the French Revolution, the Catholic Church was banned in France.

Beliefs/ideologies/

philosophies

  • Conservatives – mostly wealthy and clergy, supported monarchs

  • Socialism- working class rise up against wealthy. (Karl Marx)

  • Feminism sought for legal and economic gains for women. (equal pay and suffrage)


Cultural Development and Interactions

Beliefs/ideologies/philosophies

  • Liberals wanted to limit state interference in individual life and urged representation of propertied people in government

  • Radicals took liberals’ ideas a step further and pushed for wider voting rights and social reforms for lower classes


Cultural Development and Interactions

Science and Technology

  • Louis Pasteur discovery of germs will lead to better sanitary regulations among doctors.

  • Charles Darwin- Theory of Evolution

  • Albert Eistein- Theory of Relativity.

Art and Architecture

  • Charles Dickens wrote about life in Victorian England.

  • George Seurat – painted using pointillism.


Sunday Afternoon on the Island of Grand Jattee- Seurat


State-building, expansion, and conflict

  • United States experimented with constitutional republic.

  • Great Britain extended voting rights to working class men in 1867.

  • In Prussia, Otto Von Bismark,:

    • Gave all men the right to vote

    • Extended rights to Jews

    • Allowed freedom of press


State-building, expansion, and conflict

Political structure/govts

  • After Napoleon, the conservatives in Europe met at the Congress of Vienna:

    • Led by Von Metternich of Austria

    • Restored monarchs to power who Napoleon had displaced.

    • Tried to maintain a balance of power in Europe.

    • Feared Liberal revolutions.

Political structure/govts

  • In Western Europe, by 1870 most countries:

    • Had a growing bureaucracy

    • Governments increased regulation of factories, hospitals, and prostitutes to name a few.

    • Provided public education which focused on nationalism.

    • Began social welfare programs.


State-building, expansion, and conflict

Empires

  • Need for markets and raw materials, Western Europe sought colonies in Africa, S.E. Asia, China, and the Middle East.

  • Great Britain

    • Enlarged territory with settlements in Australia and New Zealand.

  • United States will gain Hawaii and the Philippines.


State-building, expansion, and conflict

Revolts and Revolutions

  • The American Revolution

    • American Colonists were influenced by the Enlightenment.

    • Colonists revolted against the British for due to unfair taxes and trade regulations.

    • Revolution was successful and a republic was established.


State-building, expansion, and conflict

Revolts and Revolutions

  • The French Revolution

    • Causes-

      • Debt to due assisting Americans in American Revolution and overspending of monarchy.

      • High tax burden on peasants and middle class.

      • Influence of Enlightenment and success of American Revolution.

  • In 1789, the middle class forms the National Assembly in order to write a new constitution. Government becomes constitutional monarchy.


State-building, expansion, and conflict

Revolts and Revolutions

  • The French Revolution

    • In 1789, the middle class forms the National Assembly in order to write a new constitution. Government becomes constitutional monarchy.

    • National Assembly writes the Declaration of the Rights of Men which outlines freedoms similar to the Declaration of Independence.


State-building, expansion, and conflict

Revolts and Revolutions

  • The French Revolution

    • In 1792, Robespierre seizes power in the National Assembly and ushers in a more Radical Phase called the Reign of Terror.

    • During the Reign of Terror, 1792-1795, ten of thousands of French were falsely accused of being against the Revolution and executed.

    • A new constitution was devised giving every man the right to vote.


State-building, expansion, and conflict

Revolts and Revolutions

  • The French Revolution-John Green

    • Robespierre was eventually replaced by more moderate leadership that was marked by corruption.

    • Revolution ends with the reign of Napoleon Bonaparte and his quest to conquer Europe.


State-building, expansion, and conflict

Revolts and Revolutions

  • In 1820, Greeks sparked nationalist revolt against Ottomans.

  • There were several liberal and national revolts in Western Europe in the 1830’s and 1840.

    • France was success going from a constitution monarchy to a republic.

  • Poland did not gain its independence from Russia.

  • In 1860’s ,Prussia under leadership of Otto Von Bismarck helped to unify the German speaking states of Europe through War


Economic creation, expansion, and interactions

Agriculture

  • In Britain, the Enclosure Movement allowed for more efficient use of farmland and an a higher crop yield.

  • Crops from the New World helped to stabilize the food supply. (ex. Potato)

  • Dairy products were a new specialized crop.

Trade and Commerce

  • Many peasants formed cooperatives to sell their goods and buy supplies.


Economic creation, expansion, and interactions

Labor

  • Rise of middle class through need for jobs as secretaries, clerks, managers, and salespeople.

  • The working class worked long hours for little pay, so unions were formed to fight for fairer conditions.

  • Children and women were employed t to increase profits because they commanded less.

  • Horrible Histories


Social Development and Transformations

Gender roles and Relations

  • In public education, girls were taught the importance of home and women role in society.

  • Rise of Feminism which started among middle-class women.

  • By 1918, Britain, Germany and the U.S. allowed women to vote.

Family and Kinship

  • Families were having smaller families due to lower infant mortality rates.

  • In Western Europe, child were mandated to attend public school after labor reforms were passed.


Social Development and Transformations

Social and Ethnic Constructions

  • The middle class began to rise in number and influence.

Social and Economic

Classes

  • Middle class gained greater influence through the political process.

  • Working class started to experience better quality of life .


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