Controlling sutardja dai hall
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Controlling Sutardja Dai Hall. Andrew Krioukov Stephen Dawson- Haggerty, Jay Taneja David Culler. Buildings. 40% of US electricity 42% of greenhouse gas footprint Want: Energy Efficiency Flexible Load. Building Power Consumption. 1MW. 883 kW. 11%. Sutardja Dai Hall.

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Controlling Sutardja Dai Hall

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Controlling sutardja dai hall

Controlling Sutardja Dai Hall

Andrew Krioukov

Stephen Dawson-Haggerty, Jay Taneja

David Culler


Buildings

Buildings

40% of US electricity

42% of greenhouse gas footprint

  • Want:

    • Energy Efficiency

    • Flexible Load


Building power consumption

Building Power Consumption

1MW

883 kW

11%


Sutardja dai hall

Sutardja Dai Hall

3 years old

7 floors, 140k sq. feet

Collaboratories, offices, classrooms, auditorium & nanofab

Siemens Controls, WattStopper

> 6000 sensors & actuators


Building control network

Building Control Network

Sensors,

Actuators

Controllers

Readings

& Actuation

sMAP/

HTTP

Internet

BACnet/IP

Modem

Siemens P2

over RS-485

Gateway

WattStopper

Server

Siemens

Server

Modem


Controlling sutardja dai hall

Cooling Tower

Chiller

Hot Water

Economizer

Air Handler

VAV

VAV

VAV


Problems

Problems

1. Oblivious control loops

  • Increasing thermostat on warm day wastes energy

  • Conflicting controls

    2. Oversizing

  • Excess ventilation

  • Oversized chiller

Inefficient, Inflexible Control


Controlling sutardja dai hall

Why?

Modular Building Controller

Motorola 68302

16.67 MHz Processor

3MB RAM

RS-485 @ 300 - 115.2K bps

60 day battery backup

  • Hardware:

    • Resource limited

    • Reliability is the goal

    • Supports independent operation

  • Generic control logic:

    Oversizing ensures comfortable operation in most buildings with less effort

  • Historic:

    Replacing pneumatic/analog controls


Controlling sutardja dai hall

Goal

Globally-aware control with the same reliability.

  • What is the architecture?

    • How to ensure: robustness, security and safety?

  • What is the control policy?


Building control architecture

Building Control Architecture

Sensors &

Actuators

Low-level

Control

High-level

Control

Valve pos,

Damper pos,

Fan speed

Set points,

PID parameters

Weather,

Energy Prices

Internet

Building-wide optimization

PID Loops

How to do “atomic” building configuration changes?

Security model?

Enforcing safety constraints.


Policy components

Policy Components

  • Supply air temp

  • Airflow

  • Room set points

  • Cold water pumps

  • Chiller

  • Hot water pumps


Variable air volume vav box

Variable Air Volume (VAV) Box

  • Ventilation

  • Maintain temperature

100%

Heating Valve

Cold Airflow

Min airflow

0%

Too Cold

Setpoint

Too Hot


Vav control

VAV Control

100% Cooling

Dead band

100% Heating


Conflicting vavs

Conflicting VAVs

Max heating

  • S1-9 - Mechanical Room

  • S4-20 - Floor 4 open office

  • S5-9 - Floor 5 hallway

  • S5-21 - Floor 5 open office

  • S5-4 - Floor 5 open office

  • S7-9 - Floor 7 open office

  • S7-3 - Floor 7 open office

Max Cooling

  • S1-1 – Boiler room

  • S4-4 – Floor 4 open office

  • S5-8 - Floor 5 office

  • S5-10 - Floor 5 open office

  • S7-13 - Floor 7 open office

  • S7-10 - Floor 7 open office

  • S7-1 - Floor 7 open office


Ventilation

Ventilation

  • TITLE 24:

    • 15 CFM per person of fresh air

    • 900 – 1100 PPM CO2

  • VAVs have static minimum airflow base on:

    • Maximum occupancy

    • Minimum fresh air intake


Fresh air intake

Fresh Air Intake


Questions

Questions?


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