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A primer on data security - How do we protect our satellites?. Daniel Fischer OPS-GDA / Uni Lux 3 November 2006. Introduction. Weakest Link Principle. The overall security of a system is only as strong as the security of its weakest link.

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A primer on data security how do we protect our satellites l.jpg

A primer on data security- How do we protect our satellites?

Daniel Fischer

OPS-GDA / Uni Lux

3 November 2006


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Introduction


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Weakest Link Principle

The overall security of a system is only as strong as the security of its weakest link

  • All security aspects have to be recognised in order to realise a secure system

    Example: A strong access control system is useless if the passwords are written on a yellow piece of paper that sticks on the computer


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Data Security

Data Security is more than just encryption and firewalls!

  • Data Security is a process not an add-on

    • It has to be present through the whole development cycle of a system

    • It requires security aware thinking of system developers and users

    • It should increase the general responsibility awareness


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Data Security Objectives

  • The goal of data security is to achieve the following fundamental objectives

    • Availability

    • Confidentiality

    • Integrity

    • Non-Repudiation

    • Access Control

    • Authentication


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Risk Assessment


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Risk Assessment

From what do we need to protect an information system and which countermeasures are most urgent?

  • Risk Assessment can answer that question

  • In data security, risk is defined as a function of three terms:

    • The probability of a threat

    • The probability that there is a certain vulnerability

    • The potential cost of the impact

      Risk = P(Threat)*P(Vulnerability)*C(Impact)


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Threats

What kind of threats are in existence?

  • General

    • Denial of Service

    • Eavesdropping

    • Integrity violation / Corruption

    • Hijacking / System Takeover

    • Destruction of information and/or hardware

  • Further threats possible depending on the nature of the system

  • Threats are measured in probability of occurrence

  • Threats are largely dependent on the motivation, funding and qualification of the threat agent i.e. the potential attacker


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Vulnerabilities

System vulnerabilities are the entrance doors for successful attacks

  • Vulnerabilities are measured in probability of occurrence

  • Bugs in software implementations and operating systems

  • Missing security awareness among users

  • Improper configuration

  • Weak data protection methods


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Impacts

Successful exploitation of one or more vulnerabilities can have a more or less critical impact on a system

  • Examples:

    • Loss of a spacecraft

    • Data base destruction

    • Email espionage

    • Loss of customer confidence

  • Impacts are classified through their severity and measured in concrete values like concrete cost


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Summary on Risk Assessment

  • Before applying all kinds of (good sounding) countermeasures at various points in a system, a risk assessment is a vital undertaking

    • Afterwards the answer to a specific threat might be clearer

    • The level of countermeasures is more appropriate (do not shoot flies with cannons…)

    • Unnecessary redundancies can be identified before

    • A maximum level of transparency can be guaranteed

    • The risk assessment might uncover new risks that were not known beforehand


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Countermeasures


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Countermeasures

  • Countermeasures can be classified

    • Detection

    • Protection

    • Recovery

  • What countermeasures exist in data security?

    • Cryptography

    • Security Policies

    • System Evaluation

    • Filtering and Monitoring

    • User Training

  • The key term is synergy!


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Cryptography

Params

Key

  • Cryptography represents the classical understanding of data security

  • A cryptographic operation is applied to a data structure

  • Input:

    • Data Structure

    • Secret Information (=Key)

    • Other parameters

  • Output:

    • Protected Data Structure

Cryptographic

Function

DS

PDS


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Cryptographic key principles

There are two cryptographic design principles that form the basis for all crypto primitives

  • Symmetric Cryptography

    • The same key is used for a cryptographic function and its inverse function

  • Asymmetric Cryptography

    • Different keys for a crypto function and its inverse function

Message = D ( E (Message, Key), Key )

Message = D ( E (Message, EncKey), DecKey )

EncKey != DecKey


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Cryptographic Primitives

Symmetric

Cryptography

Asymmetric

Cryptography

Secret Key

Encryption

Public Key

Encryption

Message

Authentication

Codes

Digital

Signatures

Cryptography


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Security Policies

Security Policies are guidelines of any kind that have the goal to increase the level of security

  • ESA Security Policies are developed by the security office or ESACERT

  • They can be of any form

    • Technical Guidelines

    • Access Restriction Regulations

    • User Behaviour Regulations

    • Key Management Regulations

    • System Configuration Regulations

    • Protocol and application usage Regulations

    • Virus Detection and Reaction Regulations


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System Evaluation

System Evaluation protects against vulnerabilities resulting from a poor system design or implementation

  • International Standards like Common Criteria define evaluation assurance levels

    • E.g. CC EAL 3: Methodically tested and checked

  • Evaluation can be a long and expensive process

  • Security can already be increased by just evaluating the security critical parts of a system

  • Most extreme case is formal verification

  • Governments also have national evaluation schemes for crypto equipment protecting classified information


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User Training

User training sessions increase security sensitivity of users

  • Training sessions shouldbe scheduled on a regularbasis

  • Topics could be:

    • Secure usage of computer systems (e.g. protection from Trojan Horses)

    • Secure choice and storage of passwords

    • Introduction to secure software and protocols

  • This goes hand in hand with security policies


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Filtering and Monitoring

Filtering and Monitoring of network traffic can uncover or prohibit many attacks

  • Monitoring

    • Intrusion Detection Systems

    • Attack patterns can be recognised

    • Port Surveillance

      • Which ports are open and why?

  • Filtering

    • Packet Filter

    • Stateful Inspection

      • Content Inspection

    • Ingress Filtering

  • Both countermeasures are very punctual


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Protocol Analysis/ Engineering

  • ESA and other space agencies are using of space tailored communication protocols

    • These protocols do not aim on providing security

    • Protocol analysis and security hardening is an important countermeasure

      • Transparency and interoperability should be kept if possible

  • Special purpose security protocols need to be designed

    • Key Exchange/ Agreement

    • (Mutual) Authentication

  • Techniques such as formal verification may become important here as well


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Summary of Countermeasures

  • Each countermeasure provides only a few aspects of data security

    • In general, one countermeasure alone cannot counter a certain risk

    • There is no single “silver bullet”

    • Defence in depth

  • Countermeasures must work together to archive the protection of the system

    • Weakest Link Principle

    • Synergy!


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Security by Obscurity

  • Many people think that a security system becomes more secure if its internal structure is secret

    • Example: A secret encryption algorithm

  • BUT: The exact opposite is the case

    • Open and standardised systems are subject to constant analysis by the international research community

    • Secret systems can only be analysed by internal specialists

      • Unless an agency or company has a huge budget, severe and constant analysis of internal security systems is not possible

  • The Kerckhoff principle in cryptography

    • The security of a crypto system shall always and only depend on the secrecy of the key

    • This means that everything of the algorithm except for the keys shall be open


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Where do we stand?


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What about ESA/ESOC?

Where stands ESA/ESOC in terms of data security?

  • Current situation critical

    • Data security countermeasures are generally limited on monitoring and filtering

    • Security is seen as a kind of obstacle for workflows

    • No awareness of the work of ESACERT

    • Very limited security policies

      • Usage of insecure protocols in the networks

    • No cryptographic techniques e.g. for protected data transfer inside ESOC

    • Security unaware users

Login: root

Password: toor


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Where do we have to improve?

  • A long way to go to a secure ESOC

    • However, already small improvements can significantly increase the security level

  • Implementation of ESACERT guidelines

  • Introduction and enforcement of a few simple policies:

    • Password Handling

    • Protocol Handling

  • On the long term

    • Usage of the complete set of security policies that will be developed by the ESA security office

    • Introduction of a public key infrastructure

    • Usage of evaluated software


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Some simple examples

  • Standard remote console protocol in ESOC is Telnet

    • All user names, passwords and other information are transmitted in plaintext

    • Migration to the free secure shell (SSH) would solve the problem

  • For many user accounts, the password is very simple and easy to hack

    • A secure password can easily be generated by a nice little sentence

      • Metop is our #1polar orbiter -> Mio#1po

  • Many machines run old and unpatched server processes such as Apache

    • Regular updates close a lot of security holes


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ESACERT

  • ESA Computer and CommunicationsEmergency Response Team

    • http://www.esacert.esa.int/

  • ESACERT provides data security solutions for ESA

    • Intrusion Detection

    • Incident handling

    • Alerts and Announcements

    • Collaboration and Coordination

    • Vulnerability and Artefact Analysis and Response

    • System Scanning and Certification

    • Training and Awareness

    • Consulting and Risk Analysis

    • etc.


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Incident Example

  • On 3/02/06 a successful attack was driven on the mcs30 machine

  • The attack resulted in

    • Complete destruction of the MySQL database that supports the ELog application

    • Denial of Service

    • Deletion of attack traces

  • ESACERT analysis identified the following possible break-in process:

    • Attack began via a very old version of Apache resulting in theft of the passwd/shadow file(s)

    • Because of the weak passwords the attacker succeeded in cracking them and obtaining root access very quickly

    • With root rights he did the rest


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Incident Analysis Conclusion

The attack on mcs30 was of extremely simple nature and would not have been possible if a few security regulations were followed

  • Two main factors that helped the attacker:

    • Old and vulnerable software installed

    • Weak passwords in place

  • Both could have been prevented easily

  • However, there was no reaction


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The Data Security Support Project


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Project Overview

  • Reasons for starting the project:

    • Currently, only very few existing and upcoming ESA missions support security features (Metop, ATV, Sentinel-1,…)

    • Lack of standardisation in the area of security leads to high costs for every new mission

    • ESAs ground segment in its current form is not able to handle space link security

    • In the future, many missions will have security requirements defined


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Project Work

  • Work on a standardisation for space link security

    • On CCSDS level

    • On ESA/ECSS level

  • Perform analysis of currently existing security mechanisms and standards

    • Check whether they can be used in the future and where ESA needs to improve

    • Example: PSS TC authentication system causes a lot of trouble both on the authentication algorithm and the technical implementation in ESA systems

    • Buzzwords: Interoperability, Transparency, Open systems


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Results and further objectives

  • Study has already produced some promising results

    • Analysis of PSS authentication standard has revealed several basic problems with TC authentication

    • A ground segment analysis has identified several weaknesses in the ground infrastructure security

    • A recommendation of security inclusion in the packet TM/TC standards is provided with proper justification

  • Further objectives

    • Investigate the topic of key management for ground and space link key distribution

    • Provide further suggestions for increasing the security situation in the ground segment

    • Investigate impact of security on satellite emergency situations

    • End-to-End security and the problems with interoperability services such as SLE


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Summary

  • This presentation has given a very high level overview on security enhancing techniques

    • The maximum security is achieved by a synergy of all these techniques

  • How do we protect our satellites?

    • Risk Assessment on our systems

    • Implementation of appropriate countermeasures

      • Simple countermeasures can easily be implemented

      • A long term plan must also be developed

  • Development of standardised security supporting protocols for the space link


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Tank You for Your time

Any questions?


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