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THEA Objective #4. Idea Relationships I and II Chapter 4 and 5. What are Idea relationships?. the manner in which the author organizes his or her information . 6 types of relationships. Sequence Pattern (time) List pattern (addition) Compare-Contrast Pattern Cause /Effect Pattern

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THEA Objective #4

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THEA Objective #4

Idea Relationships I and II

Chapter 4 and 5

What are Idea relationships?

the manner in which the author organizes his or her information.

6 types of relationships

  • Sequence Pattern (time)

  • List pattern (addition)

  • Compare-Contrast Pattern

  • Cause /Effect Pattern

  • Definition/example pattern (illustration)

  • Problem/Solution Pattern

Transitionsare words or phrases (like another)that show relationships between ideas. They are “bridge” words, carrying the reader across from one idea to the next:

CHAPTER 4 Relationships I

Here are some common words that show addition:

Addition Words


•Depression can be eased through therapy and medication. Physical exercise has also been shown to help.

•Bananas are the most frequently purchased fruit in the U.S. Why are bananas so popular? To begin with, they are convenient to carry around and to eat.

Time Words

Here are some common words that show illustration:

Illustration Words


•Although they are children’s stories, famous fairy tales such as “Little Red Riding Hood” and “Snow White” are clearly filled with dark symbolic meanings.

•A number of famous historical figures, including Beethoven, Charles Dickens, and Winston Churchill, suffered from depression.

Here are some common words that show comparison:

Comparison Words


•Very young and very old people resemble one another in their dependence upon those around them.

•Car manufacturers often show beautiful women with their products, as if to suggest that owning the car will bring social rewards. In the same way, alcohol ads typically show people in fun or romantic settings.

Here are some common words that show contrast:

Contrast Words


•While mammals have internal mechanisms that regulate body temperature, cold-blooded animals such as lizards must regulate their temperature by external means, such as basking on warm sunny rocks.

•Corporate executives urged employees to buy the company’s stock despite the fact that they were selling it themselves.

Here are some common words that show cause and effect:

Cause and Effect Words


•Young babies have weak necks and relatively heavy heads. Consequently, it is important to support the baby’s head firmly when you hold him or her.

•Do not refrigerate potatoes. The reason is that a potato’s starch will turn to sugar at low temperatures, making the vegetable taste odd.

CHAPTER 4 Relationships I

A Note on Main Ideas and Patterns of Organization

A paragraph’s main idea often indicates its pattern of organization.

Paying close attention to the main idea can give you a quick sense of a paragraph’s pattern of organization.

Main idea:Shakespearian acting companies had to work hard to make boys look and sound like women.

Because women were not allowed to act in English plays during Shakespeare’s time, young male actors pretended to be women. Acting companies had to work hard to make boys sound and look like women. To begin with, they chose teenage boys who had not reached puberty. They found boy actors who had high-pitched voices and didn’t need to shave. Next, they dressed the boys in women’s clothing. An upper cloth called a bodice was tightened with string so that the boys looked as if they had feminine waists. The boys wore dresses and high-heeled shoes that matched their characters. A long-haired wig completed the costumes. Finally, they added makeup. A white paste made the boys look pale, and red blush gave them rosy lips and cheeks. The boy actors would step on stage looking like ladies.

1. Chose boys who had not yet reached puberty

2. Dressed boys in women’s clothing

3. Added makeup

This paragraph is organized according to time order.

People who move into affordable city neighborhoods may not realize it, but they are often part of a process that ends in the change of a community. The first stage of this “gentrification” process begins when young artists move into a low-income working-class neighborhood. These artists are often attracted by the low rents and the proximity to the urban centers where they can’t afford to live. In the next stage, young professionals follow the artists into the neighborhood. They are often attracted to the trendy restaurants, galleries, and nightclubs that open in neighborhoods popular with artists. The final stage of the gentrification process occurs when upper-class families take over the neighborhood. The end result is a neighborhood where the rising rents are too costly for the artists who started the process of gentrification to begin with. The artists, therefore, are forced to move on to another working-class neighborhood, where they will start this process over again.

Main idea:The process of gentrification can transform a community.

Stage 1—Young artists move into a low-income working-class neighborhood.

Stage 2—Young professionals follow the artists into the neighborhood.

Stage 3—Upper-class families take over the neighborhood.

Stage 4—The artists are forced to move on to another working-class neighborhood, and the process begins all over again.

CHAPTER 4 Relationships I

Patterns of Organization

/ Two Final Points

2Remember that not all relationships between ideas are signaled by transitions.

An author may present a list of items, for example, without using addition words.

As you read, watch for the relationships themselves, not just the transitions.

  • Sequence Pattern(time)- The ideas presented by the author must be in order.

  • List Pattern(addition)-In this pattern, the author organizes his/her information by making a list. This list does not need to be in any order.

  • Definition Pattern(illustration)-In this pattern, the author defines a particular term, idea, or concept and follows it with examples.

  • Cause – Effect Pattern-The author explains the reason why something happened or the results of something. (the cause happens first!)

  • Compare-Contrast Pattern-This pattern shows how two things are alike and how they are different ,or both.

  • Problem – Solution- a problem is presented and either a solution or a possible solution is given

Transition Words that help

page 222

Mark It!

List Pattern-more transition words

  • characteristics,

  • elements,

  • features,

  • types,

  • ways

  • letters (a, b, c) or bullets to list information

Compare-Contrast Pattern

  • Comparison: how 2 things are alike

  • Contrast: how they are different

Cause/Effect -which is which?

Cause Effect



Many students find it difficult to make the transition from high school to college. In high school, teachers often treat students like children. For instance, teachers may require homework to be done in a certain color ink, or they may call parents when children misbehave. On the other hand, college teachers treat students as adults. No one other than the students themselves is expected to take responsibility for learning. Also, adjusting to greater independence can be a challenge for many college freshmen. Students in high school usually live at home. In college, however, many students live on their own and have no one to answer to or depend on but themselves.

1Psychologists use several theories to explain different sides of human behavior. 2Best-known is the psychoanalytic theory, which holds that people are driven largely by needs and desires that they are not aware of—the so-called “subconscious” mind. 3Another theory, behaviorism, suggests that people’s actions are based largely on past experiences of reward and punishment. 4We do things that brought us pleasant results in the past and avoid things that brought unpleasant results. 5Yet another theory, “gestalt” psychology, emphasizes the role of overall patterns in our thinking. 6For example, we find it much easier to remember a tune than a series of unconnected musical notes.

1Projection is an unconscious process of seeing one’s own shortcomings in others. 2For example, a greedy shop owner may cheat many of his customers, yet consider himself a pillar of the community and a good Christian. 3How does he justify to himself his greed and dishonesty? 4He believes that everyone who enters his store is bent on cheating him any way he or she can. 5In reality, few, if any, of his customers share his motives, but he projects his own greed and dishonesty onto them.

1When a person’s position in society is derived primarily through inheritance, we call this ascribed status; that is, a person’s position in society is fixed (or ascribed to him or her by others) on the basis of family background or genetic inheritance. 2Racial, ethnic, and religious differences, as well as gender, often serve as the basis for ascribed status. 3The caste system in India has long been an extreme example of a social structure based on ascribed status. 4Each level in society is known as a caste. 5Everyone is born belonging to a specific caste. 6The caste of the parents thus generally determines the status of their children, regardless of ability or merit.


About 5% of all babies born alive, or 175,000 babies per year, have a significant defect. Such birth defects account for about 15% of deaths among newborns. Recall from the genetics chapters that birth defects may be caused by genetic as well a environmental factors, or by a combination of the two.

  • According to the selection, which of the following is a result of birth defects?

  • Fifteen percent of newborns die

  • Five percent of babies born alive have significant birth defects

  • Poor social development results.

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