By Simo Määttä, Kajaani University of applied sciences , spring 2010. Basics of probability calculus. What is probability ?. Probability in general is a way to measure how certainly some outcome will happen in the future in some experiment .
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Throwing a dice.
Allelements (outcomes, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6) have the sameprobability of happening (1/6 *100% = 1,6666 % )
Solution: 15 /(7+15) = 0,6818 68,2 %
P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B)
P(Ac)= 1 – P(A)
Wethroughtwodices. Letourrandomvariable X be the sum of the numbersweget. Nowelementsare (1, 1), (1, 2), (2, 1), …, (6, 6). X attachnumber 2 to outcome (1, 1) and number 3 to outcomes (1, 2) and (2, 1) and so on. Thereare 36 elements (possibleoutcomes) --
P(x=2) = 1/36, P(X=3)=2/36, … , P(X=12) = 1/36
This is a probabilitydistribution of ourrandomvariable X
Let X beweight.
Now P(X=45 kg) = 1/infinity = 0, becausethere is infinitenumber of possiblevalues for X (X is continuous) and 45 is onlyone of them.