Bone tissue
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Bone tissue. Anatomy of a bone Structure of bone tissue Formation and growth of bone Fracture and repair Effects of physiological processes on bone. The parts of a long bone. Diaphysis-shaft Epiphyses- ends Come together at metaphyses Articular cartilage protects epiphyses

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Bone tissue

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Bone tissue

Bone tissue

  • Anatomy of a bone

  • Structure of bone tissue

  • Formation and growth of bone

  • Fracture and repair

  • Effects of physiological processes on bone


The parts of a long bone

The parts of a long bone

  • Diaphysis-shaft

  • Epiphyses- ends

  • Come together at metaphyses

  • Articular cartilage protects epiphyses

  • Periosteum covers bone

  • Medullary cavity contains marrow; is lined by endosteum


Bone cells

Bone cells


Organization of bone tissue

Organization of bone tissue

compact

spongy


Compact vs spongy bone

Compact bone

External layer

Arranged in osteons

Lamellae are found around periphery and between osteons

Central canals connected to each other by perforating canals

Spongy bone

No osteons

Arranged in trabeculae

Major type of tisse in short, flat, irregular bones

Much lighter than compact bone

Supports red bone marrow

Compact vs. spongy bone


Blood and nerve supply to bone

Blood and nerve supply to bone

  • Abundant supply of blood

  • May have several nutrient arteries

  • Nerves accompany blood vessels


Ossification osteogenesis

Ossification (osteogenesis)

  • Bone forms within mesenchyme in layers (intramembranous)

    • Flat bones of skull and mandible

    • Osteocytes secrete calcium

    • Compact and spongy bone form


Endochondral ossification

Endochondral ossification

  • Most bones are formed this way

  • Calcification is triggered when chondrocytes die

  • Vascularization triggers ossification


Bone growth in length epiphyseal plate

Bone growth in length (epiphyseal plate)

  • Growth is on epiphyseal side

  • Resting cartilage secures epiphyseal plate

  • Dividing cells are in proliferating cartilage

  • Cells mature in hypertrophic cartilage

  • Osteoblasts replace calcified cartilage


Bones get thicker by appositional growth

Bones get thicker by appositional growth

  • Osteoblasts form new extracellular matrix

  • Blood vessel becomes enclosed, supports new osteon

  • Osteoblasts lay down extracellular matrix


Bone remodeling replaces old tissue

Bone remodeling replaces old tissue

  • Resorption by osteoclasts, deposition by osteoblasts

  • Strengthens bone

  • Repairs damaged bone


Types of fracture

Types of fracture

Stress fracture is not visible;

Overuse or degeneration


Process of fracture repair

Process of fracture repair

Bone grows slowly; blood supply may be

affected


Life processes and bone formation

Life processes and bone formation

  • Why is exercise good for bones?

  • How does aging affect bones?

    • Loss of bone mass due to calcium loss

    • Decreased production of collagen


Treatment of osteoporosis

Treatment of osteoporosis

  • Prevention

  • Steroid hormone replacement (stimulates osteoblast activity)

  • Evista has estrogen-like effects on bone formation

  • Fosamax blocks bone resorption


Summary

Summary

  • Bone is a complex tissue

  • It is constantly being remodeled

  • Bones consist of compact and spongy bone, lots of blood vessels and nerves

  • Functions of bone:

    • Support and protection

    • Movement

    • Calcium levels

    • Blood cell formation

    • Fat storage


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