Compounding crisis spaces of the international in post crisis reconstruction
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Compounding Crisis: Spaces of the International in post-crisis reconstruction. Lisa Smirl Centre for International Studies University of Cambridge.

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Compounding Crisis: Spaces of the International in post-crisis reconstruction

Lisa SmirlCentre for International StudiesUniversity of Cambridge

Compound for USAID and US Department of State. Afghanistan - Designed by The Louis Berger Group, Inc. (Berger) in joint venture with PAE Government Systems (PAE-Berger) N.B. This is a semi-permanent structure

Form & Function of the International Humanitarian Compound (IHC)

Section I

Section I

Form and Function of the International Humanitarian Compound (IHC)

Caption: A vehicle leaves the United Nations compound in Mogadishu. (

Caption: Civilians died in clashes right outside the UN compound, which is now protected by the French.

Pictures of the UN Peackeeping compound in Bunia, DRC (


Blackwater watch tower, Kabul(Below) (

Caption (above): A U.S. soldier with E Company, 1st Battalion, 64th Armor Regiment stands guard in one of several towers around the United Nations compound (Aug. 11, 2005. U.S. Army photo by Sgt. Andrew A. Miller

UNMIK HQ - Pristina,

Only a few examples of agencies that use compounds…

The fortress

UNMIK HQ - Pristina,

MONUC HQ towers above surrounding shanties in Bunia, DRC, towers above its surroundings (above)

Jeremy Bentham’s Panopticon


US Embassy Oslo

Example of ‘set back’ - US Embassy Oslo

US Embassy - Ottawa

“The longer I work out here, the shorter my patience gets.The more relaxed and laissez faire the society seems to be, the tighter the restrictions that are placed on our lifestyle. While we are expanding the project exponentially, our living and working quarters have been constricted with impregnable fences erected as added security. I used to look out through our razor wire fences as the crowded IDP buses whizzed by the cow-herds walking to feed by the women carrying firewood on their heads. I used to like to say to myself, “Now this is Darfur”, as I reflected upon the pulse of the road. Now we have a giant wall of sand. It has (un)ceremoniously symbolized the blanket which numbs all imagination, adventure, and uniquity which initially compels one to come to such a place.” - from, June 23, 2007

The Camp

ISAF Camp Warehouse - east of Kabul (

Camp Gibson (Dyncorp) Kabul

Camp Gibson (Dyncorp) Kabul

Cappos at Gitmo? Starbucks has come under fire for franchising inside military bases such as Guantanamo bay (

The Gated Community

Example of a gated community, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan

Spaces of (im)mobility: UN development compound(claims to show US Diplomatic Service Personnel evacuating international from Haiti

Thank you.


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