Symbols, Symbols
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Symbols, Symbols What to use????. Clinical Scenario . Why do Speech Pathologists make use of graphic symbols? Graphic symbols may take many forms. baby. High degree of resemblanceAbstract. How our question developed? . A member’s personal experience

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Symbols, Symbols What to use????

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Symbols symbols what to use

Symbols, Symbols

What to use????


Clinical scenario

Clinical Scenario

  • Why do Speech Pathologists make use of graphic symbols?

  • Graphic symbols may take many forms


Symbols symbols what to use

baby


Symbols symbols what to use

High degree

of resemblanceAbstract


How our question developed

How our question developed?

A member’s personal experience

She asked Why? What is the evidence for this?


Symbols symbols what to use

Clinical Question

In people who use AAC are coloured photographs easier to comprehend than line drawings?


Key findings

Key Findings

  • Evidence found of lower level – suggestive only

  • Population included in studies: individuals who were basically non-verbal and had intellectual disability (varying /severe); autism


Finding cont

Finding (cont.)….

Sevcik & Romski (1986)

  • 8 participants between ages of 9 -22years – all had severe intellectual disability

  • Participants with functional language skills were able to match objects to photographs and line drawings. They performed better on matching tasks than those with non-functional language skills

  • Participants with no functional language and limited comprehension of words could match objects to photos but not objects to line drawings


Findings cont

Findings (cont.)…

Mirenda and Locke (1989) Study on symbol transparency

  • 40 participants; non-verbal with varying degrees on intellectual disabilities; age range 4 – 21; “non speaking”

  • A greater number of non-verbal people in the study identified photographs more easily than a range of symbols and line drawings


Mirenda an locke cont

Mirenda an Locke (cont.)

  • Included 8 participants with severe intellectual disabilities who had poor comprehension of spoken language. None could match non- identical objects, only 3 able to match photographs to objects and only 1 could match line drawings to objects. This group’s performance was much worse than that of participants with functional language


Finding cont1

Finding (cont.)…

Kozleski (1991b) compared acquisition rates of a variety of abstract to more iconic symbols, including coloured photographs and line drawings, for requesting function across four individuals with autism: fewer sessions were needed for highly iconic symbols.


Clinical bottom line

Clinical Bottom Line

There is insufficient high level evidence to conclusively inform choice of one graphic symbol set over another.

Some minimal level of language skill may make the use of certain symbol types easier to learn

Consider CAT limitations


Cat limitations

CAT Limitations

  • Clinical question very narrow

  • Our inclusion/exclusion criteria – did we restrict ourselves too much?

  • Recognition of pictures and using pictures as symbols are different skills


Clinical implications

Clinical implications

In absence of strong evidence

Monitor the integrity of our intervention

  • Define interventions in observable terms

  • Outcome measures

  • Data collection sheets


Possible other variables to consider when people are learning to use picture symbols

Possible other variables to consider when people are learning to use picture symbols

  • Spoken word comprehension

  • Reinforcement value

  • Symbol experience

  • Understanding of intent

  • Setting


Symbols symbols what to use

(cont.)

  • Instruction

  • Support

  • Generalization

  • Available resources

  • Stakeholders


References

References

Sevcik, RA and Romski, MA (1986). Representation matchings skills o persons with severe retardation. Augmentative and Alternative Communication. 2(4), 160-164

Mirenda and Locke (1989). A comparison of symbol transparency in non-speaking person with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders. 54, 131-149.

Schlosser, RW and Sigafoos, J (2002). Selecting graphic symbols for an initial request lexicon: Integrative review. Augmentative and Alternative communication. 18, 102-123

Stephenson (2009). Iconicity in the Development of Picture Skills: Typical Development and Implications for Individuals with Severe Intellectual Disabilities Augmentative and Alternative Communication. 25 (3), 187-201


Symbols symbols what to use

AAC EBP Group

Natalie Albores

Alana Bain

Anna Bech

Lauren Chaitow

Mary-ann Dowsett

Haley Gozzard

Jenny Lee

Cecillia Rossi

Nitha Thomson

David Trembath

Angela Vass

Jenny Wood


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