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In pursuit of livelihood security around Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda - The case of the Batwa minority. Róbert Hodosi, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås Conference: AFRICA: 1960–2010–2060 A Century (Re)visited: What Next? Pécs, 27-29 May, 2010. About the project.

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In pursuit of livelihood security around Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda - The case of the Batwa minority

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In pursuit of livelihood security around Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda - The case of the Batwa minority

Róbert Hodosi, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås

Conference: AFRICA: 1960–2010–2060

A Century (Re)visited: What Next?

Pécs, 27-29 May, 2010


About the project

  • Papia (Protected Areas and Poverty In Africa)

  • Cooperation between Makerere University, Uganda and Norwegian University of Life Sciences

  • Understanding relationship between the protected area and poverty of local communities

  • Case: the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda and the Batwa people


Bwindi Impenetrable National Park

  • South-Western part of Uganda, 331km2

  • Established as a National Park in 1991

  • Rich fauna and flora, important water catchements area, home of the famous mountain gorilla population

  • Important tourism destination in Uganda

  • Political ecology narratives on preservation: Win-Win Approach vs. Fortress Approach


Bwindi Impenetrable National Park


The Batwa people

  • A former hunter-gatherer group

  • Living in Burundi, Rwanda, DRC, Uganda

  • The Batwa are the first inhabitants of the area

  • They were evicted from the territory of the park

  • Did not get compensation for eviction


The Batwa


Problematisation of the situation

  • For Batwa: limited resources, high poverty levels, food insecurity, health and educational shortcomings

  • Dominant ethnicity (Bakiga) is agriculturalist

  • Limited access to forest products?

  • Income generating activities from the park?

  • Collaborative management of the national park


Research questions

  • Assessment of the asset base and income generating activities?

  • Constraints on accessing assets and income sources?

  • How collaborative management can be useful for the local communities?

  • How could the forest be made more beneficial for local communities? (Environmental income)


Methods

  • Livelihoods analysis framework was applied

  • 122 household interviews were conducted in adjacent communities to the park

  • NGOs and local government officials were interviewed


Findings …

  • Very little asset base (no land, livestock)

  • Constrains (1. shocks and trends: drought, crop-raiding animals) (2. institutional: discrimination)

  • The Batwa and other communities have limited access to the forest – conservation is implemented

  • No tangible benefits from collaborative management (revenue sharing, multiple use zones)

  • More information on these instruments


Findings

  • High diversification aptitude of income generating activities

  • Environmental income as safety net?

  • Useful forest: more access to forest products, more information on multiple use zones

  • Political ecology of conservation: refuting the Win-win approach?


Thank you for the attention!

Róbert Hodosi

Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Noragric

www.umb.no/noragric

rhodosi@gmail.com


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