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HDM-4 Applications. HDM-4 Applications. Project Appraisal Project Formulation Maintenance Policy Optimization Road Works Programming Network Strategic Analysis Standards & Policies. Project Appraisal. Project types New construction, upgrading Reconstruction, resealing

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HDM-4 Applications

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Hdm 4 applications

HDM-4 Applications


Hdm 4 applications1

HDM-4 Applications

  • Project Appraisal

  • Project Formulation

  • Maintenance Policy Optimization

  • Road Works Programming

  • Network Strategic Analysis

  • Standards & Policies

2


Project appraisal

Project Appraisal

  • Project types

    • New construction, upgrading

    • Reconstruction, resealing

    • Widening, lane addition

  • Economic indicators

    • Net Present Value (NPV)

    • Internal Rate of Return (IRR)

Concerned with the economic justification of a project defined by other means.

3


Paving a gravel road

Paving a Gravel Road

Current Policy (Without Project)

- Gravel resurfacing when thickness of gravel is less than 50mm

- Routine maintenance

- Grading every 182 days

Gravel Road with300 AADT

Proposed Project (With Project)

- Upgrade the road to a paved standard

- After upgrading, routine maintenance, patching 100% of the potholes, and resealing when damaged area > 20%

Two Project Alternatives

4


Roughness progression

Roughness Progression

5


Comparison of alternatives

Comparison of Alternatives

  • Evaluation Period = 20 years

  • Discount rate = 12.00 %

    ---- Present Values ---------------- Internal Construction & Road Net Rate ofLength Maintenance User Total Present Return(km) Alt. Costs Costs Costs Value (%)

    10.0 Without 0.18 5.10 5.28 With 1.75 3.10 4.85 0.43 15.5

Is the project economically justified?

6


Net economic benefits

Net Economic Benefits

7


Project formulation

Project Formulation

  • Compares many project alternatives, e.g.

    • Surface Types

    • Surface Thicknesses

    • Geometric standards

    • Timing of intervention

  • Compares alternatives in terms of net benefits and agency costs (economic efficiency frontier graph)

Concerned with the economic comparison of project alternatives to better define the project.

8


Optimal timing for paving

Optimal Timing for Paving

- Regravel and grading every 182 days

- Upgrade in 2006

- Upgrade in 2007

Gravel Road with300 AADT

- Upgrade in 2008

- Upgrade in 2009

Many Project Alternatives

9


Economic efficiency frontier

Economic Efficiency Frontier

Which is the optimal alternative?

10


Maintenance policy optimization

Maintenance Policy Optimization

  • User defines road classes in terms of condition and traffic

  • A series of condition responsive road works are evaluated

  • The alternative with highest NPV is identified along with the recurrent and capital resources needed to implement the alternative

Concerned with finding an optimal maintenance policy and funding for a given road class.

11


Asphalt road maintenance

Asphalt Road Maintenance

- Reconstruction when roughness > 8.0 IRI

- 25 mm reseal when damaged area > 10%

- 25 mm reseal when damaged area > 20%

- 25 mm reseal when damaged area > 30%

- 40 mm overlay when roughness > 3.0 IRI

A Paved Roadin Fair Condition

- 40 mm overlay when roughness > 4.0 IRI

- 40 mm overlay when roughness > 5.0 IRI

- 80 mm overlay when roughness > 3.0 IRI

- 80 mm overlay when roughness > 4.0 IRI

- 80 mm overlay when roughness > 5.0 IRI

- All include routine maintenance and patching 100% of potholes

12


Roughness progression1

Roughness Progression

13


Economic efficiency frontier1

Economic Efficiency Frontier

Which is the optimal maintenance policy?

14


Road works programming

Road Works Programming

  • Objective: prioritise candidate road projects in each year within annual budget constraint

  • Annual budgets obtained from strategic maintenance plan

Concerned with the preparation of single or multi-year road work and expenditure programmes under specified budget constraints.

15


Procedure

Procedure

  • Use specified standards to screen network & identify candidate projects, e.g.

    • road sections which exceed specified condition

    • roads with inadequate capacity

    • pavements which need strengthening

    • upgrade pavements with high traffic volumes

  • Determine maintenance or improvement options

  • Specify budget limits & periods

  • Optimise using selected objective

  • Produce optimal list of projects for budget period

16


Evaluation of road sections

Evaluation of Road Sections

Good Condition Roads- Reseal 25 mm in 2006- Reseal 25 mm in 2007- Reseal 25 mm in 2008- Reseal 25 mm in 2009

Homogeneous Road Sections

  • Fair Condition Roads- Overlay 40 mm in 2006- Overlay 40 mm in 2007- Overlay 40 mm in 2008- Overlay 40 mm in 2009- Overlay 80 mm in 2006- Overlay 80 mm in 2007- Overlay 80 mm in 2008- Overlay 80 mm in 2009

  • Poor Condition Roads- Overlay 80 mm in 2006- Overlay 80 mm in 2007- Overlay 80 mm in 2008- Overlay 80 mm in 2009- Overlay 100 mm in 2006- Overlay 100 mm in 2007- Overlay 100 mm in 2008- Overlay 100 mm in 2009

17


Unconstrained work program

Unconstrained Work Program

18


Constrained work program

Constrained Work Program

19


Work program output

2003

2003

2003

2003

2003

2004

2004

2004

2005

2005

2005

Work Program Output

20


Network strategy analysis

Network Strategy Analysis

  • Objectives:

    • Determine budget allocations for road maintenance and improvement

    • Prepare for work programmes

    • Determine long term network performance

    • Assess impact on road users

Concerned with the analysis of

entire road networks to determine funding needs and/or

to predict future performance under budget constraints

21


Strategic planning

Strategic Planning

  • Forecast scenarios of revenues & available budget

  • Assess current condition of assets

  • Forecast traffic demands (from road network plan)

  • Evaluate impact of strategies on performance and costs - using predictive model

  • Optimize strategies under alternative budget scenarios - maximize NPV for each scenario

  • Determine multi-year program allocations & performance

22


Strategic planning approach

Strategic Planning Approach

Matrix of Road Classes

G

F

P

A.C.

L

M

H

Road Network

Resource Constraints

ProgramwithoutBudgetaryConstraints

Optimal Program underBudgetary Constraints

OptimizationModule

23


Diagnostic of the network condition

Diagnostic of the Network Condition

24


Diagnostic of road user costs

Diagnostic of Road User Costs

25


Diagnostic of agency costs

Diagnostic of Agency Costs

26


Diagnostic of road classes

Diagnostic of Road Classes

27


Solution catalog per budget level

Solution Catalog per Budget Level

28


Consequences to society

Consequences to Society

29


Consequences to the network

Consequences to the Network

30


Consequences to the agency

Consequences to the Agency

31


Consequences to the users

Consequences to the Users

32


Support definition of budget level

Support Definition of Budget Level

33


Support for allocation of resources

Support for Allocation of Resources

Maintenance Budget ($m)

Primary Roads

FlexibleGravel

Secondary Roads

FlexibleGravel

Region

34.521.8

North

45.918.7

East

34.613.5

24.911.8

South

52.121.0

45.021.8

27.220.4

19.512.3

West

34


Optimal budget requirements

Optimal Budget Requirements

35


Support for programming of works

Support for Programming of Works

36


Standards policies

Standards & Policies

  • Road pricing

    • road use costs (to define fuel levies)

    • congestion charges

    • weight-distance charges

  • Vehicle regulations

    • axle load limits

    • energy consumption, vehicle emissions & noise

  • Engineering Standards

    • sustainable road network size

    • pavement design and maintenance standards

Concerned with specific studies designed to define rational technical standards and vehicle policies

37


Technical standards

Technical Standards

200

300

400

What is the optimal traffic threshold for paving?

38


Vehicle policies

Vehicle Policies

How much road damage is caused by trucks?

39


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