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FREEZE CRYSTALLISATION Based on an Environmentally Friendly Technology By Frederick Simon Oosthuizen. Treating of Complex Waters Freezing out the Water Part from a Solution with Dissolved Chemicals. Principle Method of Utilizing the Refrigeration Energy by Freezing out Water

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FREEZE CRYSTALLISATION Based on an Environmentally Friendly Technology By

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Freeze crystallisation based on an environmentally friendly technology by

FREEZE CRYSTALLISATION

Based on an

Environmentally Friendly Technology

By

Frederick Simon Oosthuizen


Freeze crystallisation based on an environmentally friendly technology by

Treating of Complex Waters

Freezing out the Water Part from a Solution with Dissolved Chemicals.

Principle

Method of Utilizing the Refrigeration Energy by Freezing out Water

in a Contaminated Fluid without the Addition of Chemicals.

Theory

When a Solution Freezes, the Ice Crystals Reject the Solute. The Dissolved

Substances increase in Concentration, allowing an Operating

Factor Ranging from 1 to 40 in the Remaining Water.

Technology

The HybridICETM Technology consists of a Water Freeze Crystallisation Plant

and a Filter System to separate the clean water from the contaminated concentrate.


Freeze crystallisation based on an environmentally friendly technology by

MINING & INDUSTRIAL SECTOR

The HybridICETM Technology is based on the principles of conventional refrigeration. HybridICETM can be integrated into an existing infra structure typically found in both the Mining and Industrial Sector. The technology is ideal for Retrofitting and Modernising existing Refrigeration plants.

Deep Cast Mines have large refrigeration capacities. Existing cooling systems can be retrofitted for water treatment and in the process improve the existing refrigeration performance.

BRINE STREAM TREATMENT FOR REVERSE OSMOSES

Membrane technologies are widely installed and used by Industry. The produced Brine Streams from a Reverse Osmoses (RO) is a critical issue in many countries. The treatment of Brine Streams is energy intensive and therefore extremely costly to operate, as these steams are predominantly being fed into Evaporation ponds.


Freeze crystallisation based on an environmentally friendly technology by

TYPICAL COMPLEX WATERComplex Waters such as Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) and Brine Steams contain Freezing Point Depressant Substances (FPDS) such as chlorides and sulphur. Both AMD and Brine Streams can be used as efficient and environmentally friendly secondary refrigerant in the HybridICETM Process without the need for Glycol .


Freeze crystallisation based on an environmentally friendly technology by

SCHEMATIC OF THE HybridICETM FREEZE CRYSTALLISATION

C

COMPLEX WATER

A

B

LIQUID ICE

INLET: COMPLEX WATER

A: HybridICETMFREEZE CRYSTALLISATION PLANT

B: HybridICETMFILTER SYSTEM

OUTLET:

C:ICE / CLEAN WATER

D:CONTAMINATED CONCENTRATE

D


Freeze crystallisation based on an environmentally friendly technology by

PRINCIPLE HybridICETM FILTER

A:INLET ICE / COMPLEX WATER

B:FILTER ELEMENT

C:ICE / CLEAN WATER

D:CONTAMINATED CONCENTRATE

E:WATER RESERVOIR

F:HEAT EXCHANGER

C

B

C

E

F

A

D


Freeze crystallisation based on an environmentally friendly technology by

HybridICETM FILTER SYSTEM – HIF SERIES


Hybridice tm freeze crystallisation plant

HybridICETM FREEZE CRYSTALLISATION PLANT


Freeze crystallisation based on an environmentally friendly technology by

ADVANTAGES FOR MINING & INDUSTRAL SECTOR

  • Conventional Cooling Technology can used to treat AMD or Brine Stream

  • The HybridICETM Process requires No Chemical Addition

  • Process recovers clean and usable water from Complex Waters

  • Significantly Reduces the Volume of Contaminated Fluids

  • Quality Air for a Healthy & Safer Working Environment for Mineworkers

  • Recovers Water with high Cooling Capacity

  • Thermal Energy well suited for High Peak Cooling Loads

  • Flexible Operating Strategies Possible

  • Cheaper Off-Peak Energy – Load Shift


Freeze crystallisation based on an environmentally friendly technology by

  • WASTE BRINE TREATMENT FROM REVERSE OSMOSES (RO) PLANTS

  • Excellent Energy Management Strategy

  • Low Temperatures reduce Scaling and Corrosion

  • Unlike Membrane Technologies, HybridICETM is not Sensitive to Impurities such as mud or Heavy Metals

  • Waste heat from for heating the Evaporation Ponds

  • Up to four times higher concentration than membrane-based RO

  • The High Concentrate and reduced Brine Stream from the HybridICETM Process can reduce the evaporation cost by up to 75%

  • Significantly increases the capacity of existing Evaporation Ponds

  • No Chemicals Required


Freeze crystallisation based on an environmentally friendly technology by

  • ADVANTAGES FOR INDUSTRIES

  • Feasible Solution for reducing Toxic Fluids

  • Energetic and Safety Advantages

  • Cost reduction by using Off-Peak Operations

  • Environmentally Friendly

  • Ecologically-Efficient


Freeze crystallisation based on an environmentally friendly technology by

FEATURES OF HybridICETM COMPONENTS

  • Retrofitting existing Refrigeration Systems

  • Significantly reduces HFC

  • Optimisation of Energy Consumption

  • Containerized Plug & Play Modules

  • Small Refrigerant Charge

  • Service Friendly & Easy to Maintain


Freeze crystallisation based on an environmentally friendly technology by

ENERGY AND COST ENHANCEMENT

  • HybridICETM - offers itself as an economically feasible solution to Recover Fresh Water were Energy is Critical and Disposal of Contaminated Fluids are Costly.

  • Process is not sensitive to impurities e.g. mud / metals unlike membrane technology.

  • HybridICETM Process requires no chemical addition.

  • Waste heat from the refrigeration cycle can be utilized to heat the concentrate.

  • The thermo-physical Properties of contaminated fluid as secondary refrigerant makes it an ideal medium for thermal energy storage, transport and transfer of cold energy.

  • The Process is ideal to reduce air temperature and humidity in the mines.


Freeze crystallisation based on an environmentally friendly technology by

FEASIBILITY

  • Contaminated Fluid is an efficient two-phase Secondary Refrigerant

  • Retrofitting and Utilizing of existing Refrigeration Equipment possible

  • Significantly reduces the amount of Primary Refrigerant

  • Usable Water can be recovered without addition of Chemicals


Freeze crystallisation based on an environmentally friendly technology by

Eco-MeRe™ ENHANCEMENT TECHNOLOGY

Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) often contain high levels of metals apart from other harmful and toxic substances. When a HybridICETM System is installed, the contaminated fluid is concentrated.

This concentrated fluid can contain valuable metals such as Cobalt, Copper, Nickel and Uranium. These Metals can be recovered with the eco-MeRe™ System, a complimentary product of HybridICETM.

The eco-MeRe™ is an electro-coagulation technology. This System has been designed to salvage valuable metals and remove iron and other harmful substances effectively. The combination of the eco-MeRe™ and HybridICETM can ensure that the recovered water can be used as industrial water or returned safely back into the environment.


Freeze crystallisation based on an environmentally friendly technology by

SOLUTIONS IN PARTNERSHIP


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