Systems Engineering Overview September 10, 1999. Presented to the Texas Board of Professional Engineers Karl Arunski, P.E. James Martin Phil Brown, P.E. Dennis Buede. Agenda. Introduction What is Systems Engineering? History of Systems Engineering and INCOSE
Presented to the Texas Board of Professional Engineers
Karl Arunski, P.E.
Phil Brown, P.E.
September 10, 1999
Determines what Is
Determines what Can Be
Determines what Should Be
What is wrong with the current situation?
Is the need clearly articulated?
Who are the intended users?
How will they use our products?
How is this different from the present?
What specific capability will we provide?
To what level of detail?
Are element interfaces well defined?
What is the overall plan of attack?
What elements make up the overall approach?
Are these complete, logical, and consistent?
Which elements address which requirements?
Is the allocation appropriate?
Are there any unnecessary requirements?
Are the details correct?
Do they meet the requirements?
Are the interfaces satisfied?
Will the solution be satisfactory in terms of cost and schedule?
Can we reuse existing pieces?
What is our evidence of success?
Will the customer be happy?
Will the users’ needs be met?
Focus of Systems Engineering
From Original Need
To Final Product
The Whole System
The Full System Life Cycle
Test & Verification
User Requirements & Concept of Operations
System Demonstration & Validation
Systems Engineering Domain
System Requirements & Architecture
System Integration & Test
Component Integration & Test
Component Engineering Domain
Procure, Fabricate, & Assemble Parts
ProcessesRole of Systems Engineering in Product Development
Theory of Constraints
Business Decision Analysis
Body of Knowledge
Concept of operations
System life cycle phases
Key performance parametersBuilding Blocks of Systems Engineering
Unique to Systems Engineering
System Functionality and Performance
Development Cost and Recurring Cost
Development Schedule (Time to Market)
Development Risk (Probability of Success)
Business Viability and Success
Subsystems often suboptimal to achieve best balance at system level
Ultimate system purpose must prevail against conflicting considerations
Long-term considerations (e.g., disposal) may drive technical decisions
Often must act as “honest broker”
Carries burden of educating customer on hard choices
Must think ahead to the next customer and next application
Must “challenge” all requirementsEthical Considerations
of Systems Engineering
The International Council On Systems Engineering (INCOSE)
September 10, 1999
1) Hughes, Thomas P., Rescuing Prometheus, Chapter 4, pps. 141-195, Pantheon Books, New York, 1998.
Briefing to the DisciplineTexas Board of Professional Engineers
September 10, 1999
SE is a way of thinking Discipline
Practiced by senior engineers with OJT
Is unique to the product/industry of the engineering firm
Should be taught within other engineering disciplines
Scientific foundations and body of knowledge have commonality across product/industry but are not unique to SE
SE team has engineers of all disciplines
SE is a discipline of engineering
Has scientific foundations that cross many other engineering disciplines
Has body of knowledge separate from other disciplines
Can be taught separately from other disciplines in an engineering school
Separate roles exist on the SE team for a specific productTwo Perspectives on SE
Scientific Foundations Discipline
Feedback and control
Prototypes for requirements
Prototypes for interface resolution
Body of Knowledge
Concept of operations
System life cycle phases
Key performance parametersSE as an Engineering Discipline
Karayanakis, N.M. (1995). Advanced System Modeling and Simulation with Block Diagram Languages.
Katzan, H. (1976). Systems Design and Documentation.
Klir, G. (1985). Architecture of Systems Problem Solving.
Kusiak, A. (ed.) (1992). Intelligent Design and Manufacturing.
Lacy, J.A. (1992). Systems Engineering Management: Achieving Total Quality.
Larson, W.J. and Wertz, J.R. (eds.) (1992). Space Mission Analysis and Design.
Lee, A.M. (1970). Systems Analysis Frameworks.
Levi, S. and Agrawala, A.K. (1994). Fault Tolerant System Design.
Lin, Y. (1999). General Systems Theory: A Mathematical Approach.
Machol, R.E. (1965). Systems Engineering Handbook.
Martin, J.N. and Bahill, A.T. (eds.) (1996). Systems Engineering Guidebook: A Process for Developing Systems and Products.
McClamroch, N.H. (1980). State Models of Dynamical Systems.
McMenamin, S.M. and Palmer, J.F. (1984). Essential Systems Analysis.
Mesarovic, M.D. and Takahara, Y. General Systems Theory: Mathematical Foundations.
Michaels, J.V. and Wood, W.P. (1989). Design to Cost.
Miles, R.F. (ed.) (1971). Systems Concepts.
Miller, J.G. (1978). Living Systems.
Moody, J.A. et al. (eds) (1997). Metrics and Case Studies for Evaluating Engineering Designs.
Nadler, G. (1967). Work Systems Design: The IDEALS Concept.
Norman, D.A. (1988). The Design of Everyday Things.
Oliver, D.W., Kelliher, T.P., and Keegan, J.G., Jr. (1997). Engineering Complex Systems with Models and Objects.
Optner, S.L. (ed.) (1973). Systems Analysis.
Ostwald, P.F. and Munoz, J. (1997). Manufacturing Processes and Systems.
Padulo, L. and Arbib, M. (1974). System Theory: A Unified State-Space Approach to Continuous and Discrete Systems.
Pages, A. and Gondran, M. (1986). System Reliability: Evaluation and Prediction in Engineering.
Perry, W.E. (1988). A Structured Approach to Systems Testing.
Prasad, B. (1996). Concurrent Engineering Fundamentals: Integrated Product and Process Organization.
Purdy, D.C. (1991). A Guide for Writing Successful Engineering Specifications.
Rasmussan, J. et al. (1994). Cognitive Systems Engineering.
Rea, K.P. and Lientz, B.P. (1998). Breakthrough Technology Project Management.
Rechtin, E. and Maier, M.W. (1996). The Art of Systems Architecting.
Rechtin, E. (1991). Systems Architecting: Creating and Building Complex Systems.
Revelle, C.S., et al. (1997). Civil and Environmental Systems Engineering.
Rouse, W.B. and Boff, K.R. (1987). System Design: Behavioral Perspectives on Designers, Tools, and Organizations.
Ryschkewitsch, M.G. (1992). The NASA Mission Design Process: An Engineering Guide to the Conceptual Design, Mission Analysis, and Definition Phases.
Sage, A.P. (ed.) (1999). Handbook of Systems Engineering.
Sage, A.P. (1995). Systems Management for Information Technology and Software Engineering.
Sage, A.P. (1992). Systems Engineering.
Sage, A.P. (1991). Decision Support Systems Engineering.
Sage, A.P. (1977). Methodology for Large-scale Systems.
Schuman, S. et al. (1994). Systems, Models, and Measures: Formal Approaches to Computing and Information Technology.
Shearer, J.L. et al. (1997). Dynamic Modeling and Control of Engineering Systems.
Shinners, S.M. (1976). A Guide to Systems Engineering and Management.
Shuey, R.L., Spooner, D.L., and Frieder, O. (1997). The Architecture of Distributed Computer Systems.
Stevens, R., et al. (1998). Systems Engineering: Coping with Complexity.
Suh, N.P. (1990). The Principles of Design.
Turbide, D.A. (1996). Why Systems Fail: And How to Make Sure Yours Doesn’t.
Van Gigch, J.P. (1978). Applied General Systems Theory.
Vickers, G. (1983). Human Systems Are Different.
Wallace, I. (1995). Developing Effective Safety Systems.
Wallace, R., Stockenberg, J. and Charrette, R. (1987). A Unified Methodology for Developing Systems.
Wright, R.T. (1990). Manufacturing Systems.
Wymore, A.W. (1993). Model-based Systems Engineering.
Wymore, A.W. (1977). A Mathematical Theory of Systems Engineering: The Elements.
Wymore, A.W. (1976). Systems Engineering Methodology for Interdisciplinary Teams.
Andriole, S.J. (1996). Managing Systems Requirements : Methods, Tools, and Case.
Aslaksen, E. and Belcher, R. (1992). Systems Engineering.
Athey, T.H. (1982). Systematic Systems Approach: An Integrated Method for Solving Systems Problems.
Baumgartner, J.S. (1979). Systems Management.
Baylin, E.N. (1990). Functional Modeling of Systems.
Beam, W.R. (1990). Systems Engineering: Architecture and Design.
Beam, W.R. (1989). Command, Control, and Communications Systems Engineering.
Blair, R.N. and Whitston, C.W. (1971). Elements of Industrial Systems Engineering.
Blanchard, B.S. (1991). System Engineering Management.
Blanchard, B.S., and Fabrycky, W.J. (1998). Systems Engineering and Analysis.
Boardman, J. (1990). Systems Engineering: An Introduction.
Buede, D.M. (2000). The Engineering Design of Systems: Models and Methods.
Chapanis, A. (1996). Human Factors in Systems Engineering.
Chapman, W.L., Bahill, A.T., and Wymore, A.W. (1992). Engineering Modeling and Design.
Chase, W.P. (1974). Management of System Engineering.
Checkland, P.B. (1981). Systems Thinking, Systems Practice.
Chestnut, H. (1967). Systems Engineering Methods.
Chorafas, D.N. (1989). Systems Architecture and Systems Design.
Churchman, C.W. (1971). The Design of Inquiring Systems.
Churchman, C.W. (1968). The Systems Approach.
Cochin, I. And Plass, H.J. (1997). Analysis and Design of Dynamic Systems.
Cooper, D. and Chapman, C. (1987). Risk Analysis for Large Projects: Models, Methods and Cases.
Coulouris, G., Dollimore, J., and Kindberg, T. (1994). Distributed Systems Concepts and Design.
Daenzer, W.F. (ed.) (1976). Systems Engineering.
Defense Systems Management College. (1989). Risk Management: Concepts and Guidance.
de Neufville, R. and Stafford. J.H. (1971). Systems Analysis for Engineers and Managers.
Dept. Of Army, (1969). A Guide to Systems Engineering.
Dhillon, B.S. (1989). Life Cycle Costing.
Dhillon, B.S. (1982). Reliability Engineering in Systems Design and Operation.
Dickinson, B.W. (1991). Systems: Analysis, Design, and Computation.
Dix, A.J. (1991). Formal Methods for Interactive Systems.
Dorny, C.N. (1993). Understanding Dynamic Systems: Approaches to Modeling, Analysis and Design.
Eisner, H. (1988). Computer-Aided Systems Engineering.
Fabrycky, W. et al. (1997). Economic Decision Analysis.
Faurre, P. and Depeyrot, M. (1977). Elements of System Theory.
Flagle, C.D., Huggins, W.H. and Roy, R.H. (1960). Operations Research and Systems Engineering,
Flood, R.L. and Carson, E.R. (1988). Dealing with Complexity, an Introduction to the Theory and Application of Systems Science.
Frankel, E.G. (1988). Systems Reliability and Risk Analysis.
Gasparski, W. (1984). Understanding Design: The Praxiological-Systemic Perspective.
Gheorghe, A. (1982). Applied Systems Engineering.
Glegg, G.L. (1981). The Development of Design.
Goode, H.H. and Machol, R.E. (1957). System Engineering – An Introduction to the Design of Large-Scale Systems.
Gosling, W. (1962). The Design of Engineering Systems.
Grady, J.O. (1995). System Engineering Planning and Enterprise Identity.
Grady, J.O. (1993). System Requirements Analysis.
Grady, J.O. (1997). System Validation and Verification.
Hajek, V.J. (1984). Management of Engineering Projects.
Hall, A. (1962). A Methodology for Systems Engineering.
Hatley, D.J. and Pirbhai, I.A. (1988). Strategies for Real-Time System Specification.
Hazelrigg, G.A. (1996). Systems Engineering: An Approach to Information-Based Design.
Hubka, V. and Eder, W.E. (1988). Theory of Technical Systems: A Total Concept Theory for Engineering Design.
Hunger, J.W. (1995). Engineering the System Solution.
Jalote, P. (1994). Fault Tolerance in Distributed Systems.
Jenkins, G.M. and Youle, P.V. (1971). Systems Engineering: a Unifying Approach in Industry and Society
Jerger, J.L. (1960). Systems Preliminary Design, Principles of Guided Missile Design.