Systems engineering overview september 10 1999
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 30

Systems Engineering Overview September 10, 1999 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 109 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Systems Engineering Overview September 10, 1999. Presented to the Texas Board of Professional Engineers Karl Arunski, P.E. James Martin Phil Brown, P.E. Dennis Buede. Agenda. Introduction What is Systems Engineering? History of Systems Engineering and INCOSE

Download Presentation

Systems Engineering Overview September 10, 1999

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Systems engineering overview september 10 1999

Systems Engineering OverviewSeptember 10, 1999

Presented to the Texas Board of Professional Engineers

Karl Arunski, P.E.

James Martin

Phil Brown, P.E.

Dennis Buede


Agenda

Agenda

  • Introduction

  • What is Systems Engineering?

  • History of Systems Engineering and INCOSE

  • Is Systems Engineering a Separate Engineering Discipline?

  • Future Steps


Briefing to the texas board of professional engineers

Briefing to the Texas Board of Professional Engineers

What is

Systems Engineering?

September 10, 1999


What is a system

What is a System?

  • Definition of a System (NASA Systems Engineering Handbook)

    • A system is a set of interrelated components which interact with one another in an organized fashiontoward a common purpose.

  • System components may be quite diverse

    • Persons and Organizations

    • Software and Data

    • Equipment and Hardware

    • Facilities and Materials

    • Services and Techniques


Systems engineering component engineering

Systems Engineering & Component Engineering

  • Science

    Determines what Is

  • Component Engineering

    Determines what Can Be

  • Systems Engineering

    Determines what Should Be


Systems engineering

Systems Engineering

  • Definition of Systems Engineering (NASA SE Handbook)

    • Systems Engineering is a robust approach to the design, creation, and operation of systems.

  • Systems Engineering consists of

    • Identification and quantification of system goals

    • Creation of alternative system design concepts

    • Performance of design trades

    • Selection and implementation of the best design(balanced and robust)

    • Verification that the design is actually built and properly integrated in accordance with specifications

    • Assessment of how well the system meets the goals


Systems engineering overview september 10 1999

What needs are we trying to fill?

What is wrong with the current situation?

Is the need clearly articulated?

Who are the intended users?

How will they use our products?

How is this different from the present?

What specific capability will we provide?

To what level of detail?

Are element interfaces well defined?

What is the overall plan of attack?

What elements make up the overall approach?

Are these complete, logical, and consistent?

Which elements address which requirements?

Is the allocation appropriate?

Are there any unnecessary requirements?

Are the details correct?

Do they meet the requirements?

Are the interfaces satisfied?

Will the solution be satisfactory in terms of cost and schedule?

Can we reuse existing pieces?

What is our evidence of success?

Will the customer be happy?

Will the users’ needs be met?

Focus of Systems Engineering

From Original Need

To Final Product

The Whole System

The Full System Life Cycle

Need

Operations Concept

Functional Requirements

System Architecture

Allocated Requirements

Detailed Design

Implementation

Test & Verification

  • Focus of Component Engineering

    • On Detailed Design

    • And Implementation


The vee model of system development

The “Vee” Model of System Development

User Requirements & Concept of Operations

System Demonstration & Validation

Systems Engineering Domain

System Requirements & Architecture

System Integration & Test

Component Design

Component Integration & Test

Component Engineering Domain

Procure, Fabricate, & Assemble Parts


Systems engineering contributions

Systems Engineering Contributions

  • Systems engineering brings two elements to a project that are not usually present

    • A disciplined focus on the

      • end product,

      • its enabling products, and

      • its internal and external operational environment(i.e., a System View)

    • A consistent vision of stakeholders’ expectations independent of daily project demands (i.e., the System’s Purpose)


Role of systems engineering in product development

Systems Engineering

Mech Engrg

Avionics

Safety

Elec Engrg

Computers

Reliability

Maintainability

Chem Engrg

Communications

Environment

SW Engrg

Structures

Systems Engineering

Systems Engineering

Producibility

Civil Engrg

Processes

Role of Systems Engineering in Product Development

  • Integrates Technical Effort Across the Development Project

    • Functional Disciplines

    • Technology Domains

    • Specialty Concerns


Building blocks of systems engineering

Math & Physical Sciences

Qualitative modeling

Quantitative modeling

Physical modeling

Theory of Constraints

Physical Laws

Management Sciences

Economics

Organizational Design

Business Decision Analysis

Operations Research

Social Sciences

Multi-disciplinary Teamwork

Organizational Behavior

Leadership

Body of Knowledge

Problem definition

Concept of operations

System boundaries

Objectives hierarchy

Originating requirements

Concurrent engineering

System life cycle phases

Integration/Qualification

Architectures

Functional/Logical

Physical/Operational

Interface

Trades

Concept-level

Risk management

Key performance parameters

Building Blocks of Systems Engineering

Unique to Systems Engineering


Ethical considerations

Achieving balance between inherent conflicts

System Functionality and Performance

Development Cost and Recurring Cost

Development Schedule (Time to Market)

Development Risk (Probability of Success)

Business Viability and Success

System Optimization

Subsystems often suboptimal to achieve best balance at system level

Ultimate system purpose must prevail against conflicting considerations

Long-term considerations (e.g., disposal) may drive technical decisions

Customer Interface

Often must act as “honest broker”

Carries burden of educating customer on hard choices

Must think ahead to the next customer and next application

Must “challenge” all requirements

Ethical Considerations


Summary

Summary

  • Systems Engineering

    • Has Unique Focus

      • End product and system purpose

      • Stakeholder needs and expectations

      • Full system life cycle (Conception through Retirement)

    • Has Unique Approach

      • Integrates disciplines and technologies

      • Balances conflicting considerations

    • Has Unique Methods, Tools & Models for

      • System analysis and simulation

      • Assessment of performance and risk

      • Organization and management of information and requirements

      • Verification and validation


Briefing to the texas board of professional engineers1

Briefing to the Texas Board of Professional Engineers

History

of Systems Engineering

and the

The International Council On Systems Engineering (INCOSE)

September 10, 1999


Systems engineering heritage

Systems Engineering Heritage

  • Water Distribution Systems in Mesopotamia4000 BC

  • Irrigation Systems in Egypt3300 BC

  • Urban Systems such as Athens, Greece400 BC

  • Roman Highway Systems300 BC

  • Water Transportation Systems like Erie Canal1800s

  • Telephone Systems1877

  • Electrical Power Distribution Systems1880


Modern origins of the systems approach

Modern Origins of the Systems Approach

  • British Multi-disciplined Team Formed (1937) to Analyze Air Defense System

  • Bell Labs Supported Nike Development (1939-1945)

  • SAGE Air Defense System Defined and Managed by MIT (1951-1980)

  • ATLAS Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Program Managed by Systems Contractor, Ramo-Wooldridge Corp (1954-1964)


Spread of the systems approach 1

Spread of the Systems Approach1

  • Early Proponents

    • Research and Development Corporation (RAND)

    • Robert McNamara (Secretary of Defense)

    • Jay Forrester (Modeling Urban Systems at MIT)

  • Growth in Systems Engineering Citations (Engineering Index)

    • Nil in 1964

    • One Page in 1966

    • Eight Pages in 1969

  • Nine Universities Offered Systems Engineering Programs in 1964

1) Hughes, Thomas P., Rescuing Prometheus, Chapter 4, pps. 141-195, Pantheon Books, New York, 1998.


Teaching se included in 1971 dod acquisition reforms

Teaching SE Included in 1971 DoD Acquisition Reforms

  • Study Group Chaired by David Packard, co-founder of Hewlett Packard

    • Recommended formal training for Department of Defense (DoD) program managers

  • Defense Systems Management College (DMSC) Established in 1971

  • DSMC Charged with Teaching Program Managers how to Direct Complex Projects

  • Systems Engineering a Core Curriculum Course


Government publications codified systems engineering discipline

Government Publications Codified Systems Engineering Discipline

  • USAF Systems Engineering Handbook 375-5 [1966]

  • MIL-STD-499 (USAF), Systems Engineering Management [1969]

  • U.S. Army Field Manual 770-78, Systems Engineering [1979]

  • Defense Systems Management College, Systems Engineering Management Guides [1983, 1990]

  • NASA Systems Engineering Handbook [1995]


Discipline maturation

Discipline Maturation

  • “Explosive Growth in Computing Power is Profoundly Changing the Systems, Themselves, and, Consequently, Systems Engineering as Practiced Over the Last Half Century.” --- Eberhardt Rechtin, July 1993

  • Steady Growth in Commercial Computer Tools that Automate and Improve Execution of Systems Engineering Process

  • Increasing World Wide Reports of Systems Engineering Applications


Expanding horizons

Expanding Horizons

  • Collaboration with Other Technical Societies

  • Development of Systems Engineering Standards (National & International)

  • Encouraging International Membership (Now 27% Outside United States)

  • Nurturing Emerging SE Applications

    • Commercial

    • Environmental

  • Fostering SE Education and Research


Se standards the product of incose collaborative efforts

SE Standards the Product of INCOSE Collaborative Efforts

  • Current SE Standards

    • Electronics Industry Association (EIA - 632)

      • Processes for Engineering a System (12/98)

    • EIA/Interim Standard - 731

      • Systems Engineering Capability Model (12/98)

    • IEEE 1220

      • Application and Management of the SE Process, (1998)

    • European Cooperation for Space Standardization (ECSS-E-10A)

      • System Engineering, (5/96)

  • SE Standards Under Development

    • ISO 15288, ISO SPICE, Systems Engineering for Space Systems, SE Data Exchange, Capability Maturity Model Integration, System Architecture (IEEE P1471)


Products

Products

  • Symposium Proceedings in Book & CD

  • Systems Engineering Journal

  • Quarterly Newsletter - INSIGHT

  • Organization Website - www.incose.org

  • Technical Committee Papers

  • Member Books & Textbooks

  • Regional Conferences


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • Elements of Systems Engineering are Embedded in All Engineering Endeavors

  • Successes, and Failures, in Producing Complex Systems Continues to Create Advocates for the Value of Systems Engineering


Why systems engineering is a separate engineering discipline

Briefing to the Texas Board of Professional Engineers

Why Systems Engineering Isa Separate Engineering Discipline!

September 10, 1999


Two perspectives on se

SE is a way of thinking

Practiced by senior engineers with OJT

Is unique to the product/industry of the engineering firm

Should be taught within other engineering disciplines

Scientific foundations and body of knowledge have commonality across product/industry but are not unique to SE

SE team has engineers of all disciplines

SE is a discipline of engineering

Has scientific foundations that cross many other engineering disciplines

Has body of knowledge separate from other disciplines

Can be taught separately from other disciplines in an engineering school

Separate roles exist on the SE team for a specific product

Two Perspectives on SE

time


Se as an engineering discipline

Scientific Foundations

Qualitative modeling

Data modeling

Process modeling

Quantitative modeling

Behavioral modeling

Feedback and control

“ility” modeling

Trade-off modeling

Physical modeling

Prototypes for requirements

Usability testing

Prototypes for interface resolution

Integration/qualification

Body of Knowledge

Problem definition

Concept of operations

System boundaries

Objectives hierarchy

Originating requirements

Concurrent engineering

System life cycle phases

Integration/Qualification

Architectures

Functional/Logical

Physical/Operational

Interface

Trades

Concept-level

Risk management

Key performance parameters

SE as an Engineering Discipline


Books on systems engineering

Books on Systems Engineering

Karayanakis, N.M. (1995). Advanced System Modeling and Simulation with Block Diagram Languages.

Katzan, H. (1976). Systems Design and Documentation.

Klir, G. (1985). Architecture of Systems Problem Solving.

Kusiak, A. (ed.) (1992). Intelligent Design and Manufacturing.

Lacy, J.A. (1992). Systems Engineering Management: Achieving Total Quality.

Larson, W.J. and Wertz, J.R. (eds.) (1992). Space Mission Analysis and Design.

Lee, A.M. (1970). Systems Analysis Frameworks.

Levi, S. and Agrawala, A.K. (1994). Fault Tolerant System Design.

Lin, Y. (1999). General Systems Theory: A Mathematical Approach.

Machol, R.E. (1965). Systems Engineering Handbook.

Martin, J.N. and Bahill, A.T. (eds.) (1996). Systems Engineering Guidebook: A Process for Developing Systems and Products.

McClamroch, N.H. (1980). State Models of Dynamical Systems.

McMenamin, S.M. and Palmer, J.F. (1984). Essential Systems Analysis.

Mesarovic, M.D. and Takahara, Y. General Systems Theory: Mathematical Foundations.

Michaels, J.V. and Wood, W.P. (1989). Design to Cost.

Miles, R.F. (ed.) (1971). Systems Concepts.

Miller, J.G. (1978). Living Systems.

Moody, J.A. et al. (eds) (1997). Metrics and Case Studies for Evaluating Engineering Designs.

Nadler, G. (1967). Work Systems Design: The IDEALS Concept.

Norman, D.A. (1988). The Design of Everyday Things.

Oliver, D.W., Kelliher, T.P., and Keegan, J.G., Jr. (1997). Engineering Complex Systems with Models and Objects.

Optner, S.L. (ed.) (1973). Systems Analysis.

Ostwald, P.F. and Munoz, J. (1997). Manufacturing Processes and Systems.

Padulo, L. and Arbib, M. (1974). System Theory: A Unified State-Space Approach to Continuous and Discrete Systems.

Pages, A. and Gondran, M. (1986). System Reliability: Evaluation and Prediction in Engineering.

Perry, W.E. (1988). A Structured Approach to Systems Testing.

Prasad, B. (1996). Concurrent Engineering Fundamentals: Integrated Product and Process Organization.

Purdy, D.C. (1991). A Guide for Writing Successful Engineering Specifications.

Rasmussan, J. et al. (1994). Cognitive Systems Engineering.

Rea, K.P. and Lientz, B.P. (1998). Breakthrough Technology Project Management.

Rechtin, E. and Maier, M.W. (1996). The Art of Systems Architecting.

Rechtin, E. (1991). Systems Architecting: Creating and Building Complex Systems.

Revelle, C.S., et al. (1997). Civil and Environmental Systems Engineering.

Rouse, W.B. and Boff, K.R. (1987). System Design: Behavioral Perspectives on Designers, Tools, and Organizations.

Ryschkewitsch, M.G. (1992). The NASA Mission Design Process: An Engineering Guide to the Conceptual Design, Mission Analysis, and Definition Phases.

Sage, A.P. (ed.) (1999). Handbook of Systems Engineering.

Sage, A.P. (1995). Systems Management for Information Technology and Software Engineering.

Sage, A.P. (1992). Systems Engineering.

Sage, A.P. (1991). Decision Support Systems Engineering.

Sage, A.P. (1977). Methodology for Large-scale Systems.

Schuman, S. et al. (1994). Systems, Models, and Measures: Formal Approaches to Computing and Information Technology.

Shearer, J.L. et al. (1997). Dynamic Modeling and Control of Engineering Systems.

Shinners, S.M. (1976). A Guide to Systems Engineering and Management.

Shuey, R.L., Spooner, D.L., and Frieder, O. (1997). The Architecture of Distributed Computer Systems.

Stevens, R., et al. (1998). Systems Engineering: Coping with Complexity.

Suh, N.P. (1990). The Principles of Design.

Turbide, D.A. (1996). Why Systems Fail: And How to Make Sure Yours Doesn’t.

Van Gigch, J.P. (1978). Applied General Systems Theory.

Vickers, G. (1983). Human Systems Are Different.

Wallace, I. (1995). Developing Effective Safety Systems.

Wallace, R., Stockenberg, J. and Charrette, R. (1987). A Unified Methodology for Developing Systems.

Wright, R.T. (1990). Manufacturing Systems.

Wymore, A.W. (1993). Model-based Systems Engineering.

Wymore, A.W. (1977). A Mathematical Theory of Systems Engineering: The Elements.

Wymore, A.W. (1976). Systems Engineering Methodology for Interdisciplinary Teams.

Andriole, S.J. (1996). Managing Systems Requirements : Methods, Tools, and Case.

Aslaksen, E. and Belcher, R. (1992). Systems Engineering.

Athey, T.H. (1982). Systematic Systems Approach: An Integrated Method for Solving Systems Problems.

Baumgartner, J.S. (1979). Systems Management.

Baylin, E.N. (1990). Functional Modeling of Systems.

Beam, W.R. (1990). Systems Engineering: Architecture and Design.

Beam, W.R. (1989). Command, Control, and Communications Systems Engineering.

Blair, R.N. and Whitston, C.W. (1971). Elements of Industrial Systems Engineering.

Blanchard, B.S. (1991). System Engineering Management.

Blanchard, B.S., and Fabrycky, W.J. (1998). Systems Engineering and Analysis.

Boardman, J. (1990). Systems Engineering: An Introduction.

Buede, D.M. (2000). The Engineering Design of Systems: Models and Methods.

Chapanis, A. (1996). Human Factors in Systems Engineering.

Chapman, W.L., Bahill, A.T., and Wymore, A.W. (1992). Engineering Modeling and Design.

Chase, W.P. (1974). Management of System Engineering.

Checkland, P.B. (1981). Systems Thinking, Systems Practice.

Chestnut, H. (1967). Systems Engineering Methods.

Chorafas, D.N. (1989). Systems Architecture and Systems Design.

Churchman, C.W. (1971). The Design of Inquiring Systems.

Churchman, C.W. (1968). The Systems Approach.

Cochin, I. And Plass, H.J. (1997). Analysis and Design of Dynamic Systems.

Cooper, D. and Chapman, C. (1987). Risk Analysis for Large Projects: Models, Methods and Cases.

Coulouris, G., Dollimore, J., and Kindberg, T. (1994). Distributed Systems Concepts and Design.

Daenzer, W.F. (ed.) (1976). Systems Engineering.

Defense Systems Management College. (1989). Risk Management: Concepts and Guidance.

de Neufville, R. and Stafford. J.H. (1971). Systems Analysis for Engineers and Managers.

Dept. Of Army, (1969). A Guide to Systems Engineering.

Dhillon, B.S. (1989). Life Cycle Costing.

Dhillon, B.S. (1982). Reliability Engineering in Systems Design and Operation.

Dickinson, B.W. (1991). Systems: Analysis, Design, and Computation.

Dix, A.J. (1991). Formal Methods for Interactive Systems.

Dorny, C.N. (1993). Understanding Dynamic Systems: Approaches to Modeling, Analysis and Design.

Eisner, H. (1988). Computer-Aided Systems Engineering.

Fabrycky, W. et al. (1997). Economic Decision Analysis.

Faurre, P. and Depeyrot, M. (1977). Elements of System Theory.

Flagle, C.D., Huggins, W.H. and Roy, R.H. (1960). Operations Research and Systems Engineering,

Flood, R.L. and Carson, E.R. (1988). Dealing with Complexity, an Introduction to the Theory and Application of Systems Science.

Frankel, E.G. (1988). Systems Reliability and Risk Analysis.

Gasparski, W. (1984). Understanding Design: The Praxiological-Systemic Perspective.

Gheorghe, A. (1982). Applied Systems Engineering.

Glegg, G.L. (1981). The Development of Design.

Goode, H.H. and Machol, R.E. (1957). System Engineering – An Introduction to the Design of Large-Scale Systems.

Gosling, W. (1962). The Design of Engineering Systems.

Grady, J.O. (1995). System Engineering Planning and Enterprise Identity.

Grady, J.O. (1993). System Requirements Analysis.

Grady, J.O. (1997). System Validation and Verification.

Hajek, V.J. (1984). Management of Engineering Projects.

Hall, A. (1962). A Methodology for Systems Engineering.

Hatley, D.J. and Pirbhai, I.A. (1988). Strategies for Real-Time System Specification.

Hazelrigg, G.A. (1996). Systems Engineering: An Approach to Information-Based Design.

Hubka, V. and Eder, W.E. (1988). Theory of Technical Systems: A Total Concept Theory for Engineering Design.

Hunger, J.W. (1995). Engineering the System Solution.

Jalote, P. (1994). Fault Tolerance in Distributed Systems.

Jenkins, G.M. and Youle, P.V. (1971). Systems Engineering: a Unifying Approach in Industry and Society

Jerger, J.L. (1960). Systems Preliminary Design, Principles of Guided Missile Design.


Summary1

Summary

  • Systems Engineering – an Engineering Discipline

    • Skills and Problems Not Unique

    • But Unique Mixture of Skills and Problems

  • Growing SE Academic Community

    • Houston, SMU, Texas Tech

    • MIT, Rochester Inst. Of Tech., Stevens Inst. Of Tech.

  • Growing Body of Knowledge

    • Books

    • SE Journal and Conferences

    • Standards

  • Students Pursue Degrees in SE

  • Engineers Pursue Job Titles in SE

  • Engineering Firms Pursue Engineers that Think at the System Level


Recommendations

Recommendations

  • Recognize Systems Engineering as a distinct engineering discipline

  • Follow a process similar to Software Engineering to define the discipline of Systems Engineering

    • Body of Knowledge

    • Code of Ethics

    • Professional Practice

    • Education Criteria/Collaboration with NCEES

    • Examination Standards

  • Move out quickly to partner with INCOSE to lead, facilitate & coordinate further actions


  • Login