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Women, Work and Networks. Pip Pattison School of Behavioural Science University of Melbourne Centre for Public Policy Forum on Women and Work, 30 th November, 2004. A network perspective on women and work. Women and academic work a local view Work and networks in organisations

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Women work and networks
Women, Work and Networks

Pip Pattison

School of Behavioural Science

University of Melbourne

Centre for Public Policy

Forum on Women and Work, 30th November, 2004


A network perspective on women and work
A network perspective on women and work

Women and academic work

a local view

Work and networks in organisations

ideas from the literature

Women and organisational networks

the empirical literature

Modelling networks in a professional organisation

case study of a law firm

Women, academic work and networks

reflections


Women and academic work
Women and academic work

Bailyn (2003): academic (and other professional) work is characterised by overload

we do many different things at once

we do many long-term things at once

our work is never finished

we never have nothing to do

Balancing work and outside responsibilities and interests is a particular challenge for academics, and perhaps especially for women


Distribution of academic staff across levels by gender faculty of mdhs 2003
Distribution of academic staff across levels by gender: Faculty of MDHS, 2003

Male Female

Level % %

A 9 63

B 23 23

C 32 19

D 22 4

E 14 1

Total 100 100


Mobility across segmented labour market boundaries mcbrier 2003
Mobility across segmented labour market boundaries (McBrier, 2003)

Segmentation of the academic labour market:

primary jobs (located within an internal labour market, eg continuing T&R) secondary jobs (located within an external labour market eg contract RO)

In many professional domains, women move more slowly:

up professional career ladders within the primary labour market

across secondary-primary job boundaries

A long time spent in the secondary market can mean:

accumulation of nontransferable skills (erosion of human capital)

failure to accumulate/maintain primary contacts (erosion of social capital)


Promotion 1995 2004 in mdhs as a function of staff classification and gender ro staff
Promotion 1995-2004 in MDHS as a function of staff classification and gender: RO staff

Promotion: n gender % promoted

From Level A to B 433 F 14

187 M 29

From Level B to C 131 F 21

96 M 24

From Level C to D 44 F 23

47 M 23 

From Level D to E 17 F 18

18 M 11


Promotion in mdhs as a function of staff classification and gender t r staff
Promotion in MDHS as a function of staff classification and gender: T&R staff

Promotion: n gender % promoted

From Level A to B 61 F 36

44 M 36

From Level B to C 155 F 22

119 M 38

From Level C to D 176 F 17

173 M 22

From Level D to E 45 F 11

115 M 16



Teaching research staff in mdhs promotion from level b to level c
Teaching & research staff in MDHS[promotion from level B to level C]


Metaphors of the career construction industry
Metaphors of the career construction industry

Glass ceiling

Sticky floor*

Leaky pipeline

Chilly climate

Ghettoization


Networks and work
Networks and work

Getting into the workforce

Informal networks help workers to obtain jobs

eg Granovetter (1974) Getting a Job

Recruitment through informal networks (rather than open recruitment) is associated with more male appointments to management positions

Reskin & McBrier (2000)

Prospering in the workplace

Informal networks within organizations define a shadow structure, where employees build alliances, trade organizational resources and manage their reputations

eg Kanter (1977) Men and Women of the Corporation


Ronald burt in press brokerage and closure an introduction to social capital
Ronald Burt (in press): Brokerage and Closure: An Introduction to Social Capital

Informal relations tend to form a small world of relatively dense clusters separated by structural holes. People whose networks bridge the holes are brokers.


Network

of Mutual

Collaboration

Ties (Lazega,

2001)


Ronald burt on brokerage and closure continued
Ronald Burt on Brokerage and Closure, continued

Burt provides evidence that across a range of organizations:

1. Brokers do better: they get more positive individual and team evaluations, higher compensation, faster promotion

2. Brokers do better because of improved vision – they are at greater risk of having creative ideas and/or of seeing how to implement ideas

3. Network clustering reinforces the status quo, and amplifies strong relations to extremes of trust and distrust, deepening structural holes

4. Network clustering around the bridges creates reputation pressures that encourage the trust and collaboration needed to deliver the value of brokerage


Some other important network properties
Some other important network properties

Density

Clustering

Connectivity/

centralisation


Women and networks at work
Women and networks at work

Herminia Ibarra (1992, 1993):

network mechanisms that create and reinforce gender inequality in the organizational distribution of power

In an advertising agency, women were found to have:

smaller proportion of same-sex network ties

more differentiated instrumental and expressive ties

fewer same-sex multiplex ties

less dense networks

fewer ties to more influential people

lower network centrality

Scott (1996) on women in corporate-government affairs

less interaction with those at top levels

less likely to socialise with work partners

more likely to interact with those at similar levels

spontaneous women’s networks


How do networks evolve
How do networks evolve?

What factors affect the formation of a network tie?

Individual attributes

Gender?

Personality?

Status?

Dyadic attributes

Homophily (eg same gender)?

Heterophily (eg higher status)?

Opportunity through shared settings?

Intrinsic network processes

Network ties create opportunities for the formation of further network ties


Mutual collaboration ties for partners in a law firm lazega 2001
Mutual collaboration ties for partners in a law firm (Lazega, 2001)

Colour codes practice (green=corporate), node size codes tenure


Beginning to assess accounts of network tie formation: Modelling collaboration in a law firm (early 1990s)

Parameter * estimate s.e.

Clustering effect** 0.608 0.089

Seniority main effect 0.024 0.006

Practice (corp. law) main effect 0.375 0.109

Same practice 0.385 0.101

Same gender 0.359 0.120

Same office 0.572 0.100

*exponential random graph model

**alternating k-triangles [Snijders, Pattison, Robins & Handcock, 2004]


Prospects and challenges
Prospects and challenges Modelling collaboration in a law firm (early 1990s)

From our local context:

support for effectiveness of EO policy and mentoring programs at senior levels

we may need to pay more attention to

entry level positions

problems of the “secondary labour market”

From the literature on networks and work, we learn something about the operation of the “shadow structure”:

reputation from network closure

vision from network bridging

influence from network access to “resources”

But what personal and situational factors, and what interpersonal processes facilitate:

creation and maintenance of bridging ties?

the capacity of an individual to build and maintain both bridge ties and cluster membership?

creation and maintenance of ties with high status members?


Prospects and challenges continued
Prospects and challenges, Modelling collaboration in a law firm (early 1990s)continued

From the literature on women’s networks at work, we see that women’s networks may be:

less likely to include high status members

less likely to enjoy the reputational benefits of closure in instrumental networks

but more likely to contain bridge ties?

What interventions might mitigate against gender inequality through network mechnaisms?

Open recruitment

EO and mentor programs

Structures that facilitate “mixing” so that genuine work-relevant network processes (still in need of further understanding) take over from individual attributes and homophily in the evolution of informal work networks


A side benefit three notions of eo in the academy bailyn 2003
A side benefit? Three notions of EO in the academy (Bailyn, 2003)

Legal equality: equal pay, equal access to opportunities to enter a profession and to advance in it; freedom from harassment

Fairness: equal opportunity is not equitable if the constraints are unequal (eg if there are systematic differences in capacity to give full priority to academic work)

Integration: work practices, structures and cultural definitions of competence and success embedded in the belief in, and acceptance of, an academic worker whose identity and commitments are legitimately anchored in both the occupational and the private world


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