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Exam 4 Review. Reproductive and Mammary Systems AN S 214 Supplemental Instruction 4/24/13. Reproductive System Outline. Male Anatomy Heat Regulation of Testes Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis Spermatogenesis and Spermiogenesis Female Anatomy Ovarian Cycle Uterine (Menstrual) Cycle

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Exam 4 review

Exam 4 Review

Reproductive and Mammary Systems

AN S 214 Supplemental Instruction

4/24/13


Reproductive system outline

Reproductive System Outline

  • Male Anatomy

  • Heat Regulation of Testes

  • Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis

  • Spermatogenesis and Spermiogenesis

  • Female Anatomy

  • Ovarian Cycle

  • Uterine (Menstrual) Cycle

  • Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis

  • Putting it All Together

  • Fertilization and Development

  • Pregnancy

  • Duct Formation

  • Abnormalities

  • Estrous Cycle

  • Seasonally Polyestrous


Male anatomy

Male Anatomy

  • Seminiferous Tubules

  • Tubulus Rectus

  • Rete Testis

  • Efferent Ductules

  • Epididymis (Head, Body, Tail)

  • Ductus (Vas) Deferens

  • Seminal Vesicle

    • Viscous alkaline seminal fluid

    • Fructose, ascorbic acid, coagulating enzyme, and prostaglandins

    • 70% of the volume of semen

  • Ejaculatory Duct

  • Prostate

    • Milky, slightly acid fluid

    • Contains citrate and enzymes

  • Bulbourethral (Cowper's) gland

    • Prior to ejaculation-thick, clear mucus

    • Lubricates the glans penis

    • Neutralizes traces of acidic urine in the urethra

  • Urethra

  • Glans Penis

  • Seminal fluid + Sperm = Semen


Heat regulation of testes

Heat Regulation of Testes

  • Keeps testes 3 degrees Celsius cooler than body temperature

  • Pampiniform Plexus

    • Countercurrent heat exchanger

      • Cools arterial blood, warm venous blood

  • Tunica Dartos Muscle

    • Smooth muscle that wrinkles scrotal skin

  • Cremaster Muscle

    • Skeletal muscle that raises or lowers testes


Hypothalamic pituitary gonadal axis

Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis

  • Leydig/Interstitial Cells

    • Stimulated by LH

    • Secrete androgens

      • Testosterone

  • Sertoli/Sustenacular Cells

    • Stimulated by FSH

    • Nourishment of developing spermatozoa

    • Form blood-testes barrier

    • Produce inhibin-represses FSH

    • Secrete androgen-binding protein (ABP)

    • Produce mullerian duct-inhibiting substance (MIS)

  • Anabolic Steroids

    • Exogenous testosterone

    • Negative feedback on pituitary

    • Results in infertility, testicular atrophy and impotence


Spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis

Spermatogenesis and Spermiogenesis

  • Spermatogonium-Most primitive cell

    • Mitosis

  • Spermatogonium A

    • Mitosis

  • Spermatogonium B

    • Mitosis

  • Primary Spermatocytes

    • Meiosis I

  • Secondary Spermatocytes

    • Meiosis II

  • Spermatids

    Differentiation

  • Spermatozoa

    • Mature Sperm

Spermatogenesis

Spermiogenesis


Female anatomy

Female Anatomy

  • Path of Oocyte

    • Ovary

    • Oviduct

      • Infundibulum

      • Ampulla

      • Isthmus

    • Uterus

    • Cervix

    • Vagina

  • External Genitalia

    • Clitoris

    • Labia minora

    • Labia majora

    • Accessory glands


Ovarian cycle

Ovarian Cycle

  • Follicular Phase

    • Primordial Follicle

    • Primary Follicle

      • One layer of granulosa cells

    • Secondary Follicle

      • Two layers of granulosa cells

    • Tertiary Follicle, Late Secondary Follicle, or Antral Follicle

      • Three layers of cells-One being granulosa cells, Two of thecal cells

      • Antrum begins to form

    • Dominant Follicle, Mature Follicle, Graffian Follicle, or Vesicular Follicle

      • Meiosis occurs

      • Large antrum

  • Ovulation

    • Secondary oocyte expelled

  • Luteal Phase

    • Corpus Hemorrhagicum

      • “Bloody Body”

    • Corpus Luteum

      • “Yellow Body”

    • Corpus Albicans

      • “White Body”


Uterine menstrual cycle

Uterine (Menstrual) Cycle

  • Menstrual Phase

    • Days 1-5

    • Menstrual flow due to low hormone levels

  • Proliferative Phase

    • Days 6-14

    • Estrogen levels prompt new endometrium in uterus

  • Secretory Phase

    • Days 15-28

    • Progesterone levels prompt further development of endometrium

    • Glandular secretions


Hypothalamic pituitary gonadal axis1

Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis

  • FSH stimulates Granulosa (G) cells to produce Estrogens

  • LH stimulates Thecal (T) cells to produce androgens

  • Estrogen Production

    • Cholesterol  Progesterone (G&T)  Testosterone (T) –Aromatase (G)Estradiol (G)


Putting it all together

Putting it All Together


Fertilization and development

Fertilization and Development

  • Aided by surface hyaluronidase enzymes, a sperm weaves its way past granulosa cells of the corona radiata

  • Binding of the sperm to ZP3 molecules in the zona pellucida causes rise in calcium levels within the sperm, triggering the acrosomal reaction

  • Acrosomal enzymes digest holes through the zona pellucida clearing a path to the oocyte membrane

  • The sperm forms an acrosomal process, which binds to the oocyte’s sperm-binding receptors

  • The sperm and oocyte plasma membranes fuse, allowing sperm contents to enter the oocyte

  • Entry of sperm contents causes a rise in the calcium levels in the oocyte’s cytoplasm, triggering the cortical reaction. The result is hardening of the zona pellucida and clipping off of sperm receptors (slow block to polyspermy)

  • After the sperm penetrates the secondary oocyte, oocyte completes meiosis II forming ovum and second polar body

  • Sperm and ovum nuclei swell, forming pronuclei

  • Pronuclei approach each other and mitotic spindle forms between them

  • Chromosomes of pronuclei intermix. Fertilization is accomplished (Zygote is formed). Then the DNA replicates in preparation for the first cleavage stage.

  • 4 cell stage

  • Morula

  • Blastocyst

    • Implants roughly 7 days after ovulation


Pregnancy

Pregnancy

  • Hormones

    • Estrogen produced by corpus luteum and placenta

      • Causes uterine, mammary duct, and breast enlargement

    • Progesterone produced by corpus luteum and placenta

      • Prevents menstruation, thickens endometrium and breast development

  • Maternal recognition of pregnancy produced by blastocyst

    • Human- Human Chorionic Gonadotropin

    • Sow- Estrogen

    • Mare- Small Unknown Peptide

    • Cow- Bovine Interferon tau

    • Ewe- Ovine Interferon tau

  • Organ development in utero

    • ~8 week cutoff for major malformations


Duct formation

Duct Formation

  • Wolffian (Mesonephric) Ducts

    • Sex-determining region on Y (SRY gene)

    • Male

    • Testosterone promotes development

    • Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS) regresses mullerian ducts

      • Can cause freemartin in female twin

  • Mullerian (Paramesonphric) Ducts

    • Female

    • Absence of testosterone, wolffian ducts regress

    • Absence of MIS, mullerian ducts develop


Abnormalities

Abnormalities

  • Male Pseudohermaphrodite

    • Genotype: XY

    • Phenotype: Testes inside body, female external genitalia

    • Caused by: Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS)

  • Female Pseudohermaphrodite

    • Genotype: XX

    • Phenotype: Have ovaries, male external genitalia

    • Caused by: Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

      • Adrenal glands overproduce testosterone


Estrous cycle

Estrous Cycle

  • Anestrous

    • Without cyclicity

  • PGF2α

    • Produced by endometrium when no pregnancy occurs

    • Regress Corpus luteum

    • Controls when the animal will cycle


Seasonally polyestrous

Seasonally Polyestrous

  • Goal

    • Give birth in spring when food is abundant

  • Short day

    • Sheep

    • 5 month gestation

    • Breed in the fall

    • ↓Light  ↑Melatonin  ↑GnRH  Cyclicity

  • Long day

    • Horse

    • 11 month gestation

    • Breed in the spring

    • ↑Light  ↓Melatonin  ↑GnRH  Cyclicity


Mammary system outline

Mammary System Outline

  • Alveolus

  • Lactation Phases

  • Milk Synthesis and Letdown

  • Milk Components


Alveolus

Alveolus

  • Smallest unit of mammary

  • Composed of epithelial cells

    • Produce milk components

    • Polar in nature

      • Nucleus located near basal membrane

      • Golgi apparatus near lumen of alveolus

  • Myoepithelial cells contract to release milk contents

  • Many alveoli make a lobule, many lobules make a lobe


Lactation phases

Lactation Phases


Milk synthesis and letdown

Milk Synthesis and Letdown

Negative


Milk components

Milk Components

  • Water

  • Carbohydrates

    • Least variable milk component

    • Mainly lactose

    • Lactose intolerance is when people lack lactase

  • Fat

    • Most variable milk component

    • Mainly Triglycerides

  • Protein

    • Between carbohydrates and fats for variability

    • Whey (20%)

    • Casein (80%)

      • Precipitates from whey at pH 4.6 by chymosin or rennin

  • Vitamins and Minerals

  • Immunity

  • Growth Factors


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